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Sandro Vento
describes for SIIC the most significant aspects of his article
describe para SIIC los aspectos relevantes de su artículo

A health economic analysis.

Antiretroviral dose reduction is a feasible approach to cost reduction and therefore wider access to HIV treatment. It would also reduce adverse events, improving tolerability and favouring adherence. We advocate for large, well-controlled non-inferiority trials the results of which could lead to a large scale reduction in antiretroviral doses.

The article was published by
El artículo fue publicado por
Tropical Medicine and International Health
Volume / Volumen: 18
Number / Número: 1
First and last pages / Páginas inicial-final: 40-44
Year / Año: 2013
Month / Mes: january

This journal, which is covered by SIIC Data Bases,
is part of the bibliographic collections of the Biblioteca Biomédica (BB) SIIC.
Esta revista, clasificada por SIIC Data Bases,
integra el acervo bibliográfico de la Biblioteca Biomédica (BB) SIIC.

Principal institution where the research took place
Institución principal de la investigación
University of Botswana School of Medicine, Gaborone, Gaborone, Botswana

Authors' Report

Crónica del Autor

Bibliographic references
Referencias bibliográficas

Arribas JR, Horban A, Gerstoft J, et al. The MONET trial: darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy shows non-inferior efficacy to standard HAART for patients with HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at baseline. 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. 19-22 July 2009, Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract TUAB16-LB.
Avihingsanon A, van der Lugt J, Kerr SJ, et al. A low dose of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir provides adequate pharmacokinetic parameters in HIV-1-infected Thai adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther 85:402-408, 2009.
Cahn P, Fourie J, Grinsztein B, et al. Efficacy and safety at 48 weeks of once-daily versus twice-daily DRV/r in treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients with no DRV resistance associated mutations: the ODIN trial. 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 16-19 February 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA. Abstract 57.
Encore1 Trial. Disponible en Acceso 16 junio 2013. Disponible de
Giola M, Cusato M, Villani P, et al. Improvement of atazanavir-induced hyperbilirubinaemia following TDM-guided atazanavir dose reduction. J Int AIDS Soc 11(suppl I):P234, 2008.
Haas D, Hicks C, Seekins D, et al. A Phase II, double blind, placebo controlled, dose-ranging study to assess the antiretroviral activity and safety of efavirenz (DMP-266) in combination with open-label zidovudine with lamivudine at 24 weeks (DMP 266-005). 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago, 1998 [abstract 698).
Hill A, Ruxrungtham K, Hanvanich M, et al. Systematic review of clinical trials evaluating low doses of stavudine as part of antiretroviral treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother 8:1-10, 2007.
Hill A, van der Lugt J, Sawyer W, Boffito M. How much ritonavir is needed to boost protease inhibitors? Systematic review of 17 dose-ranging pharmacokinetics trials. AIDS 23:2237-2245, 2009.
Kahn J, Lagakos S, Richman D, et al. A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 327:581-587, 1992.
Lanzafame M, Bonora S, Lattuada E, Calcagno A, Vento S. A reduced dose of darunavir/ritonavir is effective in PI-experienced HIV-infected patients. Braz J Infect Dis 15:498-500, 2011.
Lanzafame M, Bonora S, Lattuada E, Vento S. Efavirenz dose reduction in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med 2012 ;13 :252-253.
Lattuada E, Lanzafame M, Vento S. Efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir reduced dose in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Patient Care STDS 25:455-456, 2011.
Mills AM, Nelson M, Jayaweera D, et al. Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir vs lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients: 96 weeks analysis. AIDS 23:1679-1688, 2009.
Murphy RL, Brun S, Hicks C, et al. ABT 378/ritonavir plus stavudine and lamivudine for the treatment of antiretroviral-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results. AIDS 15:F1-F9, 2001.
Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 338:853-860, 1998.
Ramautarsing RA, Van der Lugt J, Gorowara M, et al. Neither branded nor generic lopinavir/ritonavir produces adequate lopinavir concentrations at a reduced dose of 200/50 mg twice daily. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59:55-58, 2012.
Volberding P, Lagakos S, Koch S, et al. Zidovudine in asymptomatic HIV infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimetre. N Engl J Med 322:941-949, 1990.

Other articles written by the author Sandro Vento
Otros artículos de Sandro Vento

Vento S, Garofano T, Renzini C, Cainelli F, Casali F, Ghironzi G, Ferraro T, Concia E. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 286-90.

Vento S, Cainelli F, Mirandola F, Cosco L, Di Perri G, Solbiati M, Ferraro T, Concia E. Fulminant hepatitis on withdrawal of chemotherapy in carriers of hepatitis C virus.
Lancet 1996; 347: 92-93.

Vento S, Guella L, Mirandola F, Cainelli F, Di Perri G, Solbiati M, Ferraro T, Concia E. Epstein-Barr virus as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in susceptible individuals.
Lancet 1995; 346: 608-09.

Vento S, Di Perri G, Garofano T, Concia E, Bassetti D. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during primary HIV-1 infection.
Lancet 1993; 342: 24-25.

Vento S, Garofano T, Di Perri G, Dolci L, Concia E, Bassetti D. Identification of hepatitis A virus as a trigger for autoimmune chronic hepatitis type 1 in susceptible individuals.
Lancet 1991; 337: 1183-87.

Vento S, Rondanelli EG, Ranieri S, O’Brien CJ, Williams R, Eddleston ALWF. Prospective study of cellular immunity to Hepatitis B Virus antigens from the early incubation phase of acute hepatitis B.
Lancet 1987; ii: 119-22.

Vento S, O’Brien CJ, McFarlane IG, Williams R, Eddleston ALWF. T-cell inducers of suppressor lymphocytes control liver-directed autoreactivity.
Lancet 1987; i: 886-88.

Vento S, O’Brien CJ, McFarlane BM, McFarlane IG, Eddleston ALWF, Williams R. T lymphocyte sensitization to hepatocyte antigens in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: evidence for different underlying mechanisms and different antigenic determinants as targets.
Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 810-17.

O‘Brien CJ, Vento S, Donaldson PT, McSorley CG, McFarlane IG, Williams R, Eddleston ALWF. Cell-mediated immunity and suppressor T cell defects to liver-derived antigens in families of patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.
Lancet 1986; i: 350-53.

Vento S, Hegarty JE, Bottazzo GF, Macchia E, Williams R, Eddleston ALWF. Antigen-specific suppressor cell function in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.
Lancet 1984; i: 1200-04.

SIIC System of Assisted Editing (SSEA)
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Sandro Vento was invited by SIIC on
Sandro Vento fue invitado por SIIC el
2013, march 22
  The authors' report was accepted on
La crónica del autor fue aprobada el
2017, june 10
The authors' report was accepted on
La crónica del autor fue aprobada el
2017, june 10
Published in siicsalud
Publicado en siicsalud
2017, september 8

The article is strictly related to the following sections of siicsalud
El artículo se relaciona estrictamente con las siguientes secciones de siicsalud

/ Farmacología
Infectious Diseases
/ Infectología

and secondarily related to the following sections

y secundariamente con las siguientes secciones

Health Care Management
Administración Hospitalaria


Clinical Pharmacology
Farmacología Clínica



Public Health
Salud Pública

Information about the full text
Acerca del trabajo completo

Dose Reduction of Antiretrovirals: A Feasible and Testable Approach to Expand HIV Treatment in Developing Countries

Author / Autor
Sandro Vento1, Massimiliano Lanzafame2, Emanuela Lattuada3, Francesca Cainelli4, Umberto Restelli5, Emanuela Foglia6

6 Phd, Centre For Research On Health Economics, Social And Health Care Management, Universita` Carlo Cattaneo, Castellanza

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Tropical Medicine and International Health

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