Conceptos Categóricos

Crónicas de autores

Carlo Godoy Olivares *

Autor invitado por SIIC

Este estudio fue llevado a cabo en cerdos clínicamente enfermos y la administración del fármaco fue realizada bajo condiciones habituales de uso en el sistema productivo (ad libitum)

INFLUENCIA DE UNA ENFERMEDAD RESPIRATORIA EN LA FARMACOCINÉTICA DE AMOXICILINA EN CERDOS

Las propiedades farmacocinéticas y la disposición de amoxicilina en los tejidos del aparato respiratorio puede ser influenciada por el estado de enfermedad o por factores relacionados tales como cambios en el tránsito gastrointestinal. Estas variaciones en el comportamiento farmacocinético deberían ser consideradas para la selección de un régimen de dosificación óptimo que garantice la eficacia terapéutica.

*Carlo Godoy Olivares
describe para SIIC los aspectos relevantes de su trabajo
INFLUENCE OF A PIG RESPIRATORY DISEASE ON THE PHARMACOKINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF AMOXICILLIN AFTER ORAL AD LIBITUM ADMINISTRATION IN MEDICATED FEED
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
34(3):265-276 Jun, 2011

Esta revista, clasificada por SIIC Data Bases, integra el acervo bibliográfico
de la Biblioteca Biomédica (BB) SIIC.

Institución principal de la investigación
*Servei D’anàlisi de Fàrmacs Departament de Farmacologia, de Terapèutica I de Toxicologia Facultat Veterinaria Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España
Imprimir nota
Referencias bibliográficas
1. Agersø, H. & Friis, C. (1998a) Penetration of amoxicillin into the respiratory tract tissues and secretions in pigs. Research in Veterinary Science, 64, 245–250.

2. Agersø, H. & Friis, C. (1998b) Bioavailability of amoxicillin in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 21, 41–46.

3. Agersø, H., Friis, C. & Nielsen, J. (1998) Penetration of amoxicillin to the respiratory tract tissues and secretions of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infected pigs. Research in Veterinary Science, 64, 251–257.

4. Agersø, H., Friis, C. & Nielsen, J. (2000) Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella typhimuriuminoculated pigs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61, 992–996.

5. Anfossi, P., Zaghini, A., Grassigli, G., Menotta, S. & Fedrizzi, G. (2002) Relative oral bioavailability of microgranulated amoxicillin in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25, 329–334.

6. Ang, W. & Luo, W. (2000) Determination of amoxicillin residues in animal tissues by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Journal of AOAC International, 83, 20–25.

7. Ang, C., Luo, W., Hansen, E., Freeman, J. & Thompson, H. (1996) Determination of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissues by liquid chromatography with precolumn formaldehyde derivatization. Journal of AOAC International, 79, 389–396.

8. Benfield, D., Collins, J., Dee, S., Halbur, P., Joo, H., Lager, K., Mengeling, W., Murtaugh, M., Rossow, K., Stevenson, G. & Zimmerman, J. (1999) Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. In Diseases of Swine, 8th edn. Eds Straw, B., D’Allaire, S., Mengelng, W. & Taylor, D.J., pp. 201–232. Iowa, USA.

9. Bergogne-Berazin, E. (1995) New concept in the pulmonary disposition of antibiotics. Pulmonay Pharmacology, 8, 65–81.

10. Bes, N., Baleri, T., March, M. & Riera, P. (1997) Pharmacokinetics of oral amoxicillin following oral administration in swine. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20 (Suppl. 1), 47–48.

11. Birkett, D. (1994) Non linear pharmacokinetics. Australian Prescriber, 17, 36–38.

12. Bolton, S. (1997) Pharmaceutical Statistics. Practical and Clinical Applications, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, Inc., N.Y., USA.

13. Bousquet, E., Combeau, S. & Goutalier, J. (2006a) Solubility and stability of 9 amoxicillin oral soluble powders in various water conditions. In Proceedings of the 19th IPVS Congress. V 2, pp. 426. International Pig Veterinary Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

14. Bousquet, E., Sanquer, A., Combeau, S. & Goutalier, J. (2006b) Demixing by elutriation of different amoxicillin medicated premixes in various feeds. In Proceedings of the 19th IPVS Congress. V 2, pp. 429. International Pig Veterinary Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

15. Braga, P. (1991) Antibiotic penetration into bronchial mucus: pharmacokinetics and clinical considerations. Current Therapeutic Research, 49, 300–329.

16. Burch, D. (2003) Pharmacokinetics-antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance. Pig Journal, 52, 150–165.

17. Cars, O. (1997) Efficacy of beta-lactam antibiotics integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 27, 29–33.

18. Chen, H., Wong, E. & Webb, E. (1999) Tissue distribution of a peptide transporter mRNA in sheep, dairy cows, pigs, and chickens. Journal of Animal Science, 77, 1277–1283.

19. Chesa-Jiménez, J., Peris, J., Torres-Molina, F. & Granero, L. (1994) Low bioavailability of amoxicillin in rats as a consequence of presystemic degradation in the intestine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 38, 842–847.

20. Chulavatnatol, S. & Charles, B. (1994) Determination of dose-dependent absorption of amoxycillin from urinary excretion in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 38, 274–277.

21. Cook, P., Andrews, J., Woodcock, J., Wise, R. & Honeybourne, D. (1994) Concentration of amoxicillin and clavulamate in lung compartment in adults without pulmonary infection. Thorax, 49, 1134–1138.

22. Da Ros, L., Squassante, L. & Milleri, S. (2003) Dose linearity of lacidipine pharmacokinetics after single and repeated oral doses in healthy volunteers. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 42, 99–106.

23. Dantzig, A. (1997) Oral absorption of b-lactams by intestinal peptide transport proteins. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 23, 63–79.

24. De Baere, S. & De Backer, P. (2007) Quantitative determination of amoxicillin in animal feed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 586, 319–325.

25. Del Castillo, J., Elsiner, J., Higgins, R. & Martineau, G. (1998a) The MIC maze with Streptococcus suis: Clinical considerations. in Proceedings of the 15th IPVS Congress, pp. 156. International Pig Veterinary Society, Birmingham, England.

26. Del Castillo, J., Roy, J., Messier, S., Higgins, R., Besner, J. & Martineau, G. (1998b) Me´taphylaxie de Streptococcus suis chez le porcelet sevre´ avec l’amoxicilline orale: re´sultats pharmacocine´tiques et pharmacodynamiques.
27. Journe´e Recherche Porcine, 30, 411–418.

28. Del Castillo, J., Bernier, D., Beaudry, F., Beraud, R., Huneault, L. & Letellier, A. (2009) Mechanistic modelling of the saturable absorption and organ clearance of oral amoxicillin in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 32 (Suppl. 1), 65.

29. Delis, G., Batzias, G., Kounenis, G. & Koutsoviti-apadopoulou, M. (2009) Application and validation of a LC ⁄ fluorescence method for the determination of amoxicillin in sheep serum and tissue cage fluid. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 49, 375–380.

30. Doeschl-Wilson, A., Kyriazakis, I., Vincent, A., Rothschild, M., Thacker, E. & Galina-Pantoja, L. (2009) Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 1638–1647.

31. EMEA (1998a) European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. Guideline on validation of analytical procedures: definitions. VICH Topic GL1. London. (CVMP ⁄ VICH ⁄ 590 ⁄ 98).

32. EMEA (1998b) European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. Guideline on validation of analytical procedures: methodology. VICH Topic GL2. London. (CVMP ⁄ VICH ⁄ 591 ⁄ 98).

33. Escobar, J., Van Alstine, W., Baker, D. & Johnson, R. (2007) Behaviour of pigs with viral and bacterial pneumonia. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 105, 42–50.

34. Essack, S. (2001) The development of b-Lactam antibiotics in response to the evolution of b-Lactam. Pharmaceutical Research, 18, 1391–1397.

35. Gamba, V. & Dusi, G. (2003) Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of amoxicillin and ampicillin in feeds using pre-column derivatization. Analytica Chimica Acta, 483, 69–72.

36. Ganapathy, M., Brandsch, M., Prasad, P., Ganapathy, V. & Leibach, F. (1995) Differential recognition of b-lactam antibiotics by intestinal and renal peptide transporters, PEPT 1 and PEPT 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 25672–25677.

37. Gilbert, E., Wong, E. & Webb, K. (2008) Peptide absorption and utilization: implications for animal nutrition and health. Journal of Animal Science, 86, 2135–2155.

38. Gruet, P., Pommier, P., Wessel-Robert, S. & Thomas, E. (1998) Field evaluation of 2% marbofloxacin injectable solution administered by intramuscular route in the treatment of respiratory disease in feeder pigs. In Proceedings of the 15th IPVS Congress. p. 219. Birmingham, England.

39. Haruta, S., Iwasaki, N., Ogawara, K., Higari, K. & Kimura, T. (1998) Absorption behavior of orally administered drugs in rats treated with propanteline. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 87, 1081–1085.

40. Hernández, E., Rey, R., Puig, M., García, M., Solans, C. & Bragante, M. (2005) Pharmacokinetics and residues of a new oral amoxicillin formulation in piglets: a preliminary study. The Veterinary Journal, 170, 237–242.

41. Honeybourne, D. & Baldwin, D. (1992) The site concentration of antimicrobial agents in the lung. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 30, 249–260.

42. Honeybourne, D., Andrew, J., Ashby, J., Lodwick, R. & Wise, R. (1988) Evaluation of the penetration of ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin into the bronchial mucosa. Thorax, 43, 715–719.

43. Johnston, A. (2001) Animals and antibiotics. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 18, 291–294.

44. Kausche, E., Waldmann, H., Nienhoff, H., Schmitt, E., Nicolas, Y., Solignac, T., Vinther, K., Kratzer, D., Hallberg, J. & Robb, E. (1998) Efficacy of ceftiofur crystalline free acid for the treatment of swine respiratory disease under field conditions in the European Union. In Proceedings of the 15th IPVS Congress. p. 170. Birmingham, England.

45. Klang, J., Burnworth, L., Pan, Y., Webb, K.E. & Wong, A. (2005) Functional characterization of a cloned pig intestinal peptide transporter (pPepT1). Journal of Animal Science, 83, 172–181.

46. Laurentie, M., Gicquel, M., Bernard, F. & Soutif, M. (2000) Pharmacodynamic activity of amoxicillin against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis II and Pasteurella multocida. In Proceedings of the 8th EAVPT Congress. G19. Jerusalem, Israel.

47. Letendre, L., Scott, M., Dobson, G., Hidalgo, I. & Aungst, B. (2004) Evaluating barriers to bioavailability in vivo: validation of a technique for separately assessing gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic extraction. Pharmaceutical Research, 21, 1457–1462.

48. Martı´nez, M. (2005) Use of exposure-response relationship in veterinary medicine. In 14th Biennial Symposium of the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Rockville, USA. (http://www.ivis.org).

49. Martínez-Larrañaga, M., Anadón, A., Martínez, M., Días, M., Frejo, M., Castellano, V. & Cruz, C. (2004) Pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and the rate of depletion of its residues in pigs. The Veterinary Record, 15, 627–630.

50. McKellar, Q. & Horspool, L. (1995) Stability of penicillin G, ampicillin, amikacin and oxytetracycline and their interactions with food in in vitro simulated equine gastrointestinal contents. Research in Veterinary Science, 58, 227–231.

51. Miyazaki, K., Ohtanl, K., Sunada, K. & Arita, T. (1983) Determination of ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin and cepbradine in plasma by highperformance liquid chromatography using fluorometric detection. Journal of Chromatography, 276, 478–482.

52. Morthorst, D. (2002) Bioavailability of amoxicillin in weanling piglets after oral and parenteral application by feed and water under different conditions. Institut fu¨ r Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie. Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover. Hannover, Germany.

53. NCCLS (2002) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard, 2nd edn, National Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, PA, USA.

54. Nielsen, P. (1997) Influence of feed on the oral bioavailability of antibiotic chemotherapeutics in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20 (Suppl. 1), 30–31.

55. Nix, D., Goodwin, S. & Peloquin, C. (1991) Antibiotics tissues penetration and its relevance: impact of tissue penetration on infection response. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35, 1953–1959.

56. Núñez-Vergara, L., Daza, R.A., Zanocco, A. & Squella, J. (1983) An electroactive metabolite from amoxicillin. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 11, 417–424.

57. Oh, D., Sinko, P. & Amidon, G. (1995) Characterization of the oral absorption of several aminopenicillins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 85, 181–187.

58. Paintaud, G., Alva´n, G., Dahl, M., Grahne`n, A., Sjo¨vall, J. & Svensson, J. (1992) Nonlinearity of amoxicillin absorption kinetics in human. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 43, 283–288.

59. Perrier, D. & Mayerson, M. (1982) Noncompartmental determination of the steady state volume of distribution for any mode of administration. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71, 372–373.

60. Pijpers, A., Van Klingeren, B., Schoevers, E. & Van Miert, A. (1989) In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents against four porcine respiratory tract pathogens. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 12, 267–276.

61. Reyns, T. (2008) Disposition kinetics and residue depletion of amoxicillin and its major metabolites in pigs and the relation to co-administration of clavulanic acid. In Thesis Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor (Ph.D.) in Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium. p. 203–205. (http://www.ugent.be/en).

62. Reyns, T., De Boever, S., Baert, K., Croubels, S., Schauvliege, S., Gasthuys, F. & De Backer, P. (2007) Disposition and oral bioavailability of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 30, 550–555.

63. Reyns, T., De Boever, S., Schauvliege, S., Gasthuys, F., Meissonnier, G., Oswald, I., De Backer, P. & Croubels, S. (2009) Influence of administration route on the biotransformation of amoxicillin in the pig. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 32, 241–248.

64. Ricouleau, J., Combeau, S. & Goutalier, J. (2006a) Solubility and stability of 8 amoxicillin oral soluble powders in water. In Proceedings of the 19th IPVS Congress. V 2, p. 425. International Pig Veterinary Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

65. Ricouleau, J., Combeau, S. & Goutalier, J. (2006b) Solubility and stability of 10 amoxicillin oral soluble powders in water. In Proceedings of the 19th IPVS Congress. V 2, p. 424. International Pig Veterinary Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

66. Schwarz, S., Kehrenberg, C. & Walsh, T.R. (2001) Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 17, 431–437.

67. Shojaee AliAbadi, F. & Lees, P. (2000) Antibiotic treatment for animals: effect on bacterial population and dosage regimen optimisation. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 14, 307–313.

68. Simonsen, H. (1990) Behavior and distribution of fattening pigs in the multi-active pen. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 27, 311–324.

69. Sjövall, J., Alva´n, G., Akerlund, J., Svensson, J., Paintaud, G., Nord, C. & Angelin, B. (1992) Dose-dependent absorption of amoxicillin in patients with an ileostomy. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 43, 277–281.

70. Sjövall, J. (1979) Dose dependence in human absorption of aminopenicillins. Infection, 7 (Suppl. 5), S458–S460.

71. Snoeck, V., Huyghebaert, N., Cox, E., Verniere, A., Saunders, J., Remon, J., Verschooten, F. & Goddeeris, B. (2004) Gastrointestinal transit times of nondisintegrating ratio-opaque pellet in suckling and recently weaned piglets. Journal of Controlled Release, 94, 143–153.

72. Spyker, D., Rugloski, R., Vann, R. & O‘Brien, W. (1977) Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. Dose dependence after intravenous, oral and intramuscular administration. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 11, 132–134.

73. Straw, B., Shin, S. & Yeager, A. (1990) Effect of pneumonia on growth rate and feed efficiency of minimal disease pigs exposed to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 9, 287–294.

74. Sumano, H., Ocampo, L., Vargas, R. & Bousquet, E. (2004) Pharmacokinetics of three amoxicillin medicated premixes in pigs. In Proceedings of the 18th IPVS Congress. V 2, pp. 538. International Pig Veterinary Society, Hamburg, Germany.

75. Sutton, S. (2004) Companion animal physiology and dosage form performance. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 56, 1383–1398.

76. Tanigawa, M. & Sawada, T. (2003) Exposure time-dependent bactericidal activities of amoxicillin against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonı´ae: an in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic model. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 50, 436–442.

77. Timmerman, T., Dewulf, J., Catry, B., Feyen, B., Opsomer, G., Kruif, A. & Maes, D. (2006) Quantification and evaluation of antimicrobial drug use in group treatments for fattening pigs in Belgium. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 74, 251–263.

78. Torres-Molina, F., Peris-Ribera, J., Garcia-Carbonell, M., Aristorena, J. & Pla-Delfina, J. (1992) Nonlinearities in amoxicillin pharmacokinetics II. Absorption studies in the rat. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition, 13, 39–53.

79. Toutain, P. (2003) Pharmacokinetic ⁄ Pharmacodynamic. Antimicrobial Drugs. EAVPT ⁄ ECVPT PK ⁄ PD Workshop. Moredum Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland.

80. Toutain, P. & Bousquet-Me´lou, A. (2004) Bioavailability and its assessment. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27, 455–466.

81. Ungemach, F., Mu¨ ller-Bahrdt, D. & Abraham, G. (2006) Guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials and their implications on antibiotic usage in veterinary medicine. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 296 (S2), 33–38.

82. Van Gils, L., Croubels, S., De Baere, S. & De Backer, P. (2003) The pharmacokinetic profiles of amoxicillin and its major metabolites in porcine urine and plasma. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 26 (Suppl. 1), 139–140.

83. Ward, K., Griffiths, R., Levy, M. & Smith, B. (2000) Evaluation of the uses of accelerated infusion for the determination of pharmacokinetic linearity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 293, 468–479.

84. Westphal, J., Trouvin, J., Deslandes, A. & Carbon, C. (1990) Nifedipine enhances amoxicillin absorption kinetics and bioavailability in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255, 312–317.

85. Westphal, J., Deslandes, A., Brogard, J. & Carbon, C. (1991) Reappraisal of amoxicillin absorption kinetics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 27, 647–654.

86. Wetzell, T. (2006) Considerations and Recommendations for Treating Respiratory Disease. Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA, pp. 53–55.

87. Woodnutt, G. & Berry, V. (1999) Two pharmacodynamic models for assessing the efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate against experimental respiratory tract infections caused by strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, 43, 29–34.

88. Yeoman, G. (1977) Microbiology and bioavailability of amoxicillin. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician, 72, 720–738.
Otros artículos de Carlo Godoy Olivares

Godoy, C., L. Muñoz, H. Zuñiga, L. Rubilar, L. Días, R. Perez. 2001. Validación de una técnica de cromatografía líquida (HPLC) para la determinación de ivermectina en plasma equino. Agrociencia, 17: 43-50.

Pérez R. I. Cabezas, C. Godoy, L. Rubilar, L. Días, L. Muñoz. M. Arboix, M. Alvinerie. 2001. Disposición plasmática y fecal de moxidectina administrada por vía oral en caballos. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 33: 77-88.

Pérez, R., I Cabezas, C. Godoy, L. Rubilar, L. Muñoz M. Arboix, G. Castells, M. Alvinerie. 2002. Pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin after oral administration in horses. The Veterinary Journal, 163: 161-167.

Pérez, R., C. Godoy, C. Palma, I. Cabezas, L. Muñoz, L Rubilar M. Arboix, G y M. Alvinerie. 2003. Plasma profiles of ivermectin in horses following oral or intramuscular administration. Journal Veterinary Medicine A, 50: 297-302.

Mateo, R., G. Castells, A. Green, C. Godoy, C. Cristòfol. 2004. Determination of porphyrins and biliverdin in bile and excreta of birds by a single liquid chromatography-untraviolet detection analysis. Journal of Chromatography B, 810: 305-311.

Palma, C., C. Godoy, M. Arboix, R. Pérez. 2006. Determinación de residuos de abamectina – Triclabendazol en tejidos bovinos. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 38, 265-271.

Capece, BPS, G. Castells, C. Godoy, M. Arboix, C. Cristofol. 2008. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers administered in racemic form and saparately in rats. The Veterinary Journal, 177: 297-299.

Capece, BPS, S. Afonso, M. Harun, C. Godoy, G. Castells, C. Cristofol. 2009. Effect of age and gender in the pharmacokinetics of albendazole and albendazole sulphoxide enantiomers in goats. Research in Veterinary Science, 86: 498-502.

Godoy, C., G. Castells, G. Martí, B. Capece, F. Pérez, H. Colom, C. Cristofol. 2010. Influence of a pig respiratory disease on the pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin after oral ad libitum administration in medicated feed. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap.

Pérez, R., C. Godoy, C. Palma, L. Muñoz, M. Arboix, M. Alvinerie. 2010. Plasma disposition and fecal elimination of doramectin after oral or intramuscular administration in horses. Veterinary Parasitology 170: 112–119.

Para comunicarse con Carlo Godoy Olivares mencionar a SIIC como referencia:
carlo.godoy@aub.es

Autor invitado
24 de mayo, 2011
Descripción aprobada
22 de junio, 2011
Reedición siicsalud
7 de junio, 2021

Acerca del trabajo completo
INFLUENCIA DE UNA ENFERMEDAD RESPIRATORIA EN LA FARMACOCINÉTICA DE AMOXICILINA EN CERDOS

Título original en castellano
INFLUENCIA DE UNA ENFERMEDAD RESPIRATORIA EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO FARMACOCINETICO DE AMOXICILINA DESPUES DE SU ADMINISTRACION ORAL AD LIBITUM EN PIENSO MEDICADO

Autor


Acceso a la fuente original
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0140-7783&site=1
Acceso al texto original completo (full text)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jvp.2011.34.issue-3/issuetoc
Acceso al resumen/abstract original
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492192
El artículo se relaciona estrictamente con las especialidades de siicsalud


ua40317
-->