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ANALIZAN LA RELACION ENTRE ASMA Y OBESIDAD
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ANALIZAN LA RELACION ENTRE ASMA Y OBESIDAD

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
La bibliografía ofrece información de que la obesidad predispone a padecer asma bronquial, sin importar la edad ni el sexo; pero no está claro cuáles son los agentes causales. Hasta la fecha no se puede afirmar que el asma de los obesos sea consecuencia de estos mecanismos inmunitarios.
ghiani9_82310.jpg Autor:
Hugo Ghiani
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
Asociación Argentina de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica


Artículos publicados por Hugo Ghiani
Recepción del artículo
1 de Julio, 2010
Aprobación
6 de Septiembre, 2010
Primera edición
23 de Agosto, 2010
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
La bibliografía ofrece información de que la obesidad predispone a padecer asma bronquial, sin importar la edad ni el sexo; pero no está claro cuáles son los agentes causales. Se postula como responsables a los efectos mecánicos que influyen sobre la función respiratoria en los obesos, las enfermedades comórbidas, la influencia hormonal, la dieta hipercalórica, sumado a la falta de ejercicio, factores genéticos y los mecanismos inmunitarios causados por los mediadores celulares liberados por el tejido adiposo. El tejido adiposo está formado por dos partes, el marrón y el blanco. Este último se encuentra a nivel subcutáneo y visceral. Desde el punto de vista inmunitario-inflamatorio es el tejido adiposo blanco el que desempeña el papel principal. Los adipocitos y los macrófagos son células que cobran relevancia por ser productoras de citoquinas proinflamatorias y antiinflamatorias. La leptina, de efecto proinflamatorio, y la adiponectina, antiinfamatoria, son adipoquinas secretadas por los adipocitos. El factor de necrosis tumoral alfa es producido por macrófagos y tendría una acción proinflamatoria. El tejido adiposo blanco produce también otras citoquinas con efectos sobre el tracto respiratorio. Hasta la fecha no se puede afirmar que el asma de los obesos sea consecuencia de estos mecanismos inmunes.

Palabras clave
asma, obesidad, adipoquinas, citoquinas, tejido adiposo


Artículo completo

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Abstract
There is evidence in medical literature that reinforces our awareness that obese patients are prone to suffer from bronchial asthma, no matter their age or gender. However, it is not clear which agents cause this. It has been suggested that the associated co-morbidities; hormonal changes, hyper caloric diet, lack of exercise, genetic factors and immunological mechanisms caused by cellular factors released by adipose tissue may be responsible for the mechanical effects that influence the respiratory system's function in obese people. The aim of this revision is to analyze the latter issue. Adipose tissue is formed by two types of tissue; white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. White adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat) and around the internal organs (visceral fat). From the immune-inflammatory point of view, WAT plays a primary role. Adipocytes and macrophages are very important cells characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Leptin, with a pro-inflammatory effect, and adiponectin with an anti-inflammatory effect are adipokines released by adipocytes. TNF-alpha is produced by macrophages which could have a pro-inflammatory action. WAT produces other cytokines which affect the respiratory tract. So far, it has been impossible to confirm confirmed that asthma in obese people is the consequence of these immune mechanisms.

Key words
asthma, obesity, adipokines, citokines, adipose tissue


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Endocrinología y Metabolismo, Neumonología
Relacionadas: Alergia, Atención Primaria, Bioquímica, Diagnóstico por Imágenes, Epidemiología, Inmunología, Medicina Familiar, Medicina Interna, Nutrición



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Hugo Ghiani, Asociación Argentina de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, 45 Nro. 1488, La Plata, Argentina
Bibliografía del artículo


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