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BIOLOGIA Y FUNCION DE LOS MASTOCITOS

BIOLOGIA Y FUNCION DE LOS MASTOCITOS

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
La función mejor conocida de los mastocitos es la defensa contra infestaciones parasitarias.
Autor:
María Teresa Vanda Di Girolamo
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP)


Artículos publicados por María Teresa Vanda Di Girolamo
Coautores
Silvia Coronato* Graciela Ema Laguens** 
Doctora en Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina*
Doctora en Medicina. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas., Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina**
Recepción del artículo
2 de Septiembre, 2010
Aprobación
30 de Noviembre, 2010
Primera edición
24 de Enero, 2011
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Los mastocitos o células cebadas son células que se hallan ampliamente distribuidas en todos los tejidos, principalmente en la piel y en las superficies mucosas cerca de los vasos sanguíneos y linfáticos. Pueden ser activadas por diversos estímulos de origen inmunitario o no inmunitario, liberando un amplio espectro de mediadores que incluyen histamina, proteasas, citoquinas, factores de crecimiento y metabolitos del ácido araquidónico. Estas moléculas juegan un importante papel en numerosos procesos fisiológicos y patológicos. La función mejor conocida de los mastocitos es la defensa contra infestaciones parasitarias; sin embargo, son importantes en la defensa del huésped a través de su participación en la inmunidad innata y adaptativa. Median la respuesta inflamatoria, la remodelación de los tejidos y la angiogénesis. Intervienen en las reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo I y tienen un papel contradictorio en la progresión tumoral. En esta revisión se analiza el origen, la distribución y las funciones de los mastocitos en condiciones fisiológicas y en distintas enfermedades humanas.

Palabras clave
mastocitos, citoquinas, inflamación, hipersensibilidad, cáncer


Artículo completo

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Abstract
Mast cells populate most tissues, but are found in highest number in the skin and mucosal surfaces located usually in the periphery of blood and lymph vessels in the connective tissue. These cells can be activated by several immunological or non-immunological stimuli, releasing a wide range of biological mediators including histamine, proteases, cytokines, growth factors and arachidonic acid metabolites. All these molecules play a key role in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The most well known role of mast cells is their participation in host defenses against parasitc infections. Nevertheless, mast cells are associated with a number of pathologies and reactions including inflammatory process, type I hypersensitivity reaction, tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. Their participation in tumor proggression is contradictory and requires further studies. In this review, mast cells distribution and function in physiological conditions and in different human pathologies are analyzed.

Key words
mast cells, cytokines, inflammation, hypersensitivity, tumours


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Hematología, Inmunología
Relacionadas: Anatomía Patológica, Bioquímica, Dermatología, Diagnóstico por Laboratorio, Educación Médica, Medicina Interna



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María Teresa V. Di Girolamo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 60 y 120, La Plata, Argentina
Bibliografía del artículo


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