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EFECTO DEL TABAQUISMO MATERNO SOBRE EL ESTADO OXIDATIVO EN LOS NIÑOS

EFECTO DEL TABAQUISMO MATERNO SOBRE EL ESTADO OXIDATIVO EN LOS NIÑOS

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La exposición a los componentes del cigarrillo durante el embarazo y la vida posnatal temprana es, quizá, la exposición ambiental ubicua más peligrosa y evitable. Asimismo, se demostró que el humo del cigarrillo tiene consecuencias negativas sobre la salud de los niños, en especial, durante el primer año de vida.
yilmaz9_40416.png Autor:
Gonca Yilmaz
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Dr. Sami Ulus Training Hospital


Artículos publicados por Gonca Yilmaz
Coautores
Nilgun Demirli Caylan* Can Demir Karacan* 
MD, Dr. Sami Ulus Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey*

Resumen
El hábito de fumar es una de las más importantes causas evitables de muerte. Globalmente, más de mil millones de personas son fumadoras, dejando vulnerable al resto de la población no fumadora expuesta al humo de segunda mano (HSM). La exposición a los componentes del cigarrillo durante el embarazo y la vida posnatal temprana es, quizá, la exposición ambiental ubicua más peligrosa y evitable. Asimismo, se demostró que el humo del cigarrillo tiene consecuencias negativas sobre la salud de los niños, en especial, durante el primer año de vida. El daño oxidativo es un cambio en el equilibrio entre los procesos prooxidantes y el sistema de defensa antioxidante a favor de los prooxidantes. Esta aparece en condiciones de producción aumentada de radicales libres, en la insuficiencia de los sistemas antioxidantes o en ambos. Se ha sugerido que el aumento del daño oxidativo desempeña un papel importante en la patogenia de varias enfermedades relacionadas con el tabaquismo. El humo del cigarrillo contiene grandes cantidades de radicales libres que muchos de ellos son oxidantes y prooxidantes. El tipo de nutrición en niños expuestos al HSM es muy importante para protegerlos del daño oxidativo. El propósito de esta revisión es efectuar una revisión de los estudios que han tratado la relación entre el daño oxidativo y el tipo de nutrición en la infancia y el daño oxidativo causado por la exposición al HSM durante los períodos prenatal, posnatal y en la infancia.

Palabras clave
daño oxidativo, antioxidantes, humo de segunda mano, tabaquismo, leche materna


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Abstract
Tobacco smoking is one of the most important preventable causes of death. Globally, more than 1 billion people smoke, leaving much of the world's non-smoking population vulnerable to second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Exposure to tobacco constituents during pregnancy and early postnatal life is perhaps the most ubiquitous avoidable hazardous environmental exposure. Additionally, tobacco smoke has been shown to have negative consequences on infant health, especially during the first year of life. Oxidative stress is a change in balance between pro-oxidant processes and antioxidant defense system in favor of pro-oxidants. It appears in conditions of increased production of free radicals, insufficiency of antioxidant systems or both. It has been suggested that increased oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of several smoking-related diseases. Tobacco smoke contains large quantities of free radicals, many of which are oxidants and pro-oxidants. The type of nutrition in infants who are exposed to SHS is very important to protect them from oxidative stress. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies dealing with the relation between oxidative stress and the type of nutrition in infancy and oxidative stress caused by SHS exposure during prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood periods.

Key words
tobacco smoke, second-hand smoke, antioxidants, oxidative stress, breast-milk


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Especialidades
Principal: Pediatría, Salud Pública
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Medicina Familiar, Toxicología



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Gonca Yilmaz, Dr.Sami Ulus Training and Research Hospital, Department of Social Pediatrics, Dr. Sami Ulus Training and Research Hospital, Department of Social Pediatrics, Babur Cad. No: 44 Alt, Ankara, Turquía
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