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CARACTERISTICAS IMUNOLOGICAS DAS CELULAS-TRONCO MESENQUIMAIS

CARACTERISTICAS IMUNOLOGICAS DAS CELULAS-TRONCO MESENQUIMAIS

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As células-tronco mesenquimais possuem um grande potencial de proliferação. Vários estudos têm mostrado que exercem um efeito imunossupressor tanto sobre células da imunidade inata como da adquirida. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunomodulatórios exercidos pelas células-tronco mesenquimais é essencial para o sucesso e a segurança da aplicação das mesmas nas mais diversas áreas da medicina.
vasconcellosmachado9.jpg Autor:
Cíntia De Vasconcellos Machado
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Universidade Federal da Bahia


Artículos publicados por Cíntia De Vasconcellos Machado
Coautores
Paloma Dias da Silva Telles* Ivana Lucia Oliveira Nascimento** 
Doutora em Odontologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil*
Doutora em Imunologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil**
Recepción del artículo
2 de Mayo, 2012
Aprobación
1 de Junio, 2012
Primera edición
19 de Septiembre, 2012
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Embora a medula óssea seja a sua principal fonte, as células-tronco mesenquimais já foram isoladas de diversos locais do organismo, como fígado, pâncreas, tecido adiposo, sangue periférico e polpa dentária. São células aderentes ao plástico e morfologicamente semelhantes aos fibroblastos, as quais possuem um grande potencial de proliferação. Este grupo especial de células apresenta duas características fundamentais: capacidade de auto-renovação e de multidiferenciação, quando submetidas a estímulos apropriados. As células-tronco mesenquimais são consideradas imunologicamente privilegiadas, visto que não expressam em sua superfície moléculas co-estimulatórias, necessárias para a completa ativação das células T. Vários estudos têm mostrado que as células-tronco mesenquimais exercem um efeito imunossupressor tanto sobre células da imunidade inata como da adquirida. Estas propriedades fazem com que as terapias baseadas nas células-tronco mesenquimais tornem-se uma promissora estratégia no tratamento de diversas doenças mediadas pelo sistema imune, como a doença do enxerto-versus-hospedeiro e doenças auto-imunes, assim como na regeneração de diferentes órgãos e tecidos. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunomodulatórios exercidos pelas células-tronco mesenquimais, assim como os envolvidos na diferenciação destas células em diferentes linhagens, é essencial para o sucesso e a segurança da aplicação das mesmas nas mais diversas áreas da medicina.

Palabras clave
células-tronco mesenquimais, células madre mesenquimales, imunossupressão, inmunosupresión, sistema imune, sistema inmune


Artículo completo

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Extensión:  +/-6.71 páginas impresas en papel A4
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Abstract
Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, like liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation into various cell types, with appropriate stimuli. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules on their surface, required for complete T cell activation. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity. These properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, like graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safety application in several areas of medicine.

Key words
mesenchymal stem cells, immunosuppression, immune system


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Bioquímica, Inmunología
Relacionadas: Diagnóstico por Laboratorio, Hematología



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado, Universidade Federal da Bahia Departamento de Bio-Interação, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, 40110-010, Rua Marechal Floriano, n° 354, apt 701, Bairro Canela, Salvador, Brasil
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