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PROPIEDADES QUIMIOPREVENTIVAS DEL MANGO Y LA MANZANA EN EL CANCER DE COLON

PROPIEDADES QUIMIOPREVENTIVAS DEL MANGO Y LA MANZANA EN EL CANCER DE COLON

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
La identificación de alimentos de origen vegetal, como el mango y la manzana, así como sus constituyentes con propiedades anticancerígenas, es una alternativa posible para el control, la prevención y el tratamiento de una neoplasia frecuente como el cáncer de colon.
Autor:
Maria Elena Maldonado
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Universidad de Antioquia


Artículos publicados por Maria Elena Maldonado
Aprobación
1 de Agosto, 2012
Primera edición
26 de Febrero, 2013
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
El cáncer de colon es uno de los más frecuentes en el mundo y una de las principales causas de mortalidad por cáncer. El hallazgo epidemiológico del papel protector de frutas contra el cáncer propone que fitoquímicos presentes en estos alimentos pueden ser responsables de la disminución del riesgo. Actualmente, se avanza en la identificación de más y nuevos compuestos naturales o alimentos con propiedad quimiopreventiva, capaces de interferir en las primeras etapas de la carcinogénesis, evitar la aparición de lesiones preneoplásicas y limitar la aparición de nuevas células tumorales. Los agentes quimiopreventivos se clasifican en bloqueadores de la iniciación y supresores de la promoción o progresión, dentro de los cuales se encuentran componentes de las frutas mango (Mangifera indica) y manzana (Malus sp., rosacea) como ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, mangiferina, quercetina, pectina y procianidinas. Los extractos, fracciones enriquecidas con estos fitoquímicos o jugos son capaces de influenciar diferentes mecanismos importantes para prevenir el cáncer de colon en estudios in vitro, algunos validados en modelos in vivo. Estos incluyen actividad antioxidante, modulación de vías de transducción de señales, del metabolismo de poliaminas, algunos eventos epigenéticos, antiproliferación, alteración o bloqueo del ciclo celular, apoptosis y disminución de lesiones preneoplásicas en modelos animales.

Palabras clave
Mangifera indica, Malus spp., quimioprevención, cáncer de colon, polifenoles


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Abstract
Colon cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide and one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Epidemiological findings of the protective effect of fruits on cancer suggest that phytochemical compounds of fruits may reduce the risk of developing cancer. Many researches currently in progress are identifying more and new natural compounds of fruits as chemopreventive agents able to interfer in the early stages of carconogenesis, prevent pre-neoplasic lesions and reduce development of neoplasic cells. Chemopreventive agents have been classified as cancer-blocking agents of initiation stage and cancer-supressing agents of promotion and/or progression stages, involving phytochemical mango (Mangifera indica) and apple (Malus sp., Rosacea) compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, mangiferin, quercetin, pectin and procyanidins. In vitro studies have shown that extracts, phytochemical enriched-fractions or juice are able to influence relevant mechanisms for preventing colon cancer, some of them confirmed by using in vivo colon cancer models. These mechanisms involve anti-oxidant, signal transduction pathways, polyamines metabolism, epigenetic, anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis effects, and reduction of pre-neoplasic lesions in animal models.

Key words
Mangifera indica, Malus spp., chemoprevention, colon cancer, polyphenols


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Bioquímica, Nutrición
Relacionadas: Anatomía Patológica, Gastroenterología, Inmunología, Oncología, Salud Pública



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Maria Elena Maldonado Celis, Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Universidad de Antioquia, Ciudadela de Robledo. Carrera 75 # 65-87. Bloque 44, oficina 107., Medellín, Colombia
Patrocinio y reconocimiento:
Este trabajo (Proyecto 46-1-390) se deriva del apoyo del Programa de Sostenibilidad de la Vicerrectoría de Investigación de la Universidad de Antioquía, que recibió el Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana CC9889E01454 (2009-2011).
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