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Las propiedades biológicas de casi todos los alérgenos principales pueden actualmente predecirse a partir del conocimiento de sus estructuras e indican las interacciones probables con el sistema inmunitario innato, así como las interacciones posibles con los reguladores hormonales de la inmunidad.
Wayne Robert Thomas
Columnista Experto de SIIC

University of Western Australia

Artículos publicados por Wayne Robert Thomas

Los estudios de unión con la IgE demostraron que muchas de las causas comunes de alergia inhalatoria, como a las gramíneas, el olivo, la ambrosía, el polen de abedul, los ácaros del polvo doméstico y algunos hongos, tienen uno o unos pocos de los alérgenos principales que pueden representar la mayoría de las respuestas alérgicas. La IgE que se une a los alérgenos de otras fuentes puede diseminarse entre diferentes proteínas o, como indica la alergia al gato, varía con la presentación clínica. Las propiedades biológicas de casi todos los alérgenos principales pueden actualmente predecirse a partir del conocimiento de sus estructuras e indican las interacciones probables con el sistema inmunitario innato, así como las interacciones posibles con los reguladores hormonales de la inmunidad. Como se encontró para las pectato liasas y las proteínas similares a Ole e1, las proteínas biológicamente similares pueden ser los alérgenos principales para muchas especies, mientras que los alérgenos Dermatophagoides spp y Blomia tropicalis muestran que los alérgenos con las mismas propiedades biológicas tienen variación entre las especies en la jerarquía alergénica. Estas propiedades demuestran que las interacciones de los alérgenos con la inmunidad innata y los inmunorreguladores serían diferentes para los distintos alérgenos, y esto coincide con las pruebas que indican que las respuestas inmunes a los alérgenos de la misma fuente sufren una regulación por aumento (upregulation), independientemente de si son respuestas a las proteínas co-presentadas alergénicas y no alergénicas.

Palabras clave
alérgeno, aeroalérgeno, innato, asma, biológica

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IgE-binding studies show that many of the common causes of inhalant allergy such as grass, olive, ragweed and birch pollen, house dust mites and some fungi have one or a few principal allergens that can account for most of the allergic response. The IgE binding to allergens from other sources can be more evenly spread amongst different proteins or, as indicated in cat allergy, varies with clinical presentation. The biological properties of nearly all of the principal allergens can now be predicted from the knowledge of their structures and they point to likely interactions with the innate immune system, as well as possible interactions with hormonal regulators of immunity. As found for pectate lyases and the Ole e1-like proteins, biologically similar proteins can be principal allergens for many species while the Dermatophagoides spp. and Blomia tropicalis allergens show that allergens with the same biological properties reveal interspecies variation in allergen hierarchy. These properties show that the interactions of allergens with innate immunity and immuno-regulators will be different for different allergens, and this concurs with the evidence that immune responses to allergens from the same source are regulated independently, as are responses to co-presented allergenic and non-allergenic proteins.

Key words
allergen, aeroallergen, innate, asthma, biological

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Artículos originales > Expertos del Mundo >

Principal: Alergia, Inmunología
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Bioquímica, Diagnóstico por Laboratorio, Medicina Familiar, Medicina Interna, Neumonología, Otorrinolaringología, Pediatría

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Thomas Wayne, University of Western Australia, 6009, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA, Perth, Australia
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