Conceptos Categóricos

EL MALESTAR EMOCIONAL COMO SINTOMA DE ESTRES POSTRAUMATICO

EL MALESTAR EMOCIONAL COMO SINTOMA DE ESTRES POSTRAUMATICO

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En apoyo a la información empírica precedente, los hallazgos de este estudio inciden en el papel de la evitación experiencial y la tolerancia al malestar como variables moderadoras de la sintomatología postraumática. Asimismo, apuntan hacia la necesidad de considerar estas variables en las intervenciones psicológicas para el tratamiento del trastorno por estrés postraumático.
Autor:
Alicia Eva López-martínez
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Universidad de Málaga (España). Dpto. Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico.


Artículos publicados por Alicia Eva López-martínez
Artículo comentado
Johana Acosta-Quiroz
Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas
Coautores
María Algarra Costela* Elena Rocío Serrano Ibáñez** Gema Teresa Ruiz Párraga** Carmen Ramírez Maestre** Rosa Esteve*** 
Psicóloga, Universidad de Málaga, España*
Psicóloga, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España**
Psicologa, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España***
Recepción del artículo
3 de Mayo, 2019
Aprobación
18 de Septiembre, 2019
Primera edición
23 de Septiembre, 2019
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
29 de Septiembre, 2021

Resumen
El trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) tiene una importante prevalencia en la población, por lo que conocer los mecanismos psicológicos para la vulnerabilidad y el mantenimiento del trastorno es claramente relevante. Entre dichos mecanismos, se ha postulado el constructo de malestar emocional como transdiagnóstico a diversos trastornos mentales. El objetivo del presente estudio fue poner a prueba un modelo hipotético que analizaba la asociación entre tres variables pertenecientes a dicho constructo (evitación experiencial, tolerancia al malestar e intolerancia a la incertidumbre inhibitoria) y el TEPT. Participaron 328 estudiantes universitarios (74.7% mujeres y 25.3% hombres, con una media de edad de 21 años) que habían experimentado al menos un acontecimiento traumático de acuerdo con los criterios del DSM-5, quienes completaron una batería de cuestionarios. Se efectuó un análisis de ecuaciones estructurales cuyos resultados apoyaron parcialmente el modelo hipotético. La evitación experiencial mostró asociarse positiva y significativamente con la tolerancia al malestar, la intolerancia a la incertidumbre inhibitoria y los síntomas del TEPT. La tolerancia al malestar también se vinculó de forma positiva y significativa con dichos síntomas. Sin embargo, la intolerancia a la incertidumbre inhibitoria no mostró relación con esta sintomatología. En apoyo a la evidencia empírica precedente, los hallazgos de este estudio inciden en el papel de la evitación experiencial y la tolerancia al malestar como variables moderadoras de la sintomatología postraumática. Asimismo, apuntan hacia la necesidad de considerar estas variables en las intervenciones psicológicas para el tratamiento del TEPT.

Palabras clave
trastorno de estrés postraumático, malestar emocional, evitación experiencial, tolerancia al malestar, intolerancia a la incertidumbre


Artículo completo

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Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD has an important prevalence in the population, so knowing the psychological mechanisms of vulnerability and maintenance of this disorder is clearly relevant. Among those mechanisms, the emotional distress construct has been postulated as a trans-diagnostic tool related to different mental disorders. The objective of the present study was to test a hypothetical model for the analysis of the association between three variables of this construct (experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, and inhibitory uncertainty intolerance) and PTSD. The subjects of study amounted to 328 university students (74.7% women and 25.3% men, with a median age of 21) who had experienced at least one traumatic event according to the DSM-5 criteria. They were made to complete a set of questionnaires. A structural equation analysis was carried out, with results partially coincident with the hypothetical model. Exponential avoidance showed a positive and significant association with distress tolerance, inhibitory uncertainty intolerance and PTSD symptoms. Distress tolerance was also associated with these symptoms in a positive and significant way. However, inhibitory uncertainty intolerance was not associated with this symptomatology. Following the preexisting empirical evidence, the findings of this study have an impact on the role of experiential avoidance and distress tolerance, as variables that moderate post-traumatic symptomatology. Furthermore, the findings point to the need to consider these variables in psychological interventions for the treatment of PTSD.

Key words
posttraumatic stress disorder, emotional distress, experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, intolerance of uncertainty


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Atención Primaria, Salud Mental
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Epidemiología, Medicina Familiar, Salud Pública



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Alicia E. López-Martínez, 29071, Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Teatinos, s/n, Málaga, España
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