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LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA ESTIMULACION DEL RECIEN NACIDO PREMATURO

LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA ESTIMULACION DEL RECIEN NACIDO PREMATURO

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
Los recién nacidos prematuros pueden sufrir alteraciones en el neurodesarrollo debidas a la prematuridad y a la exposición a factores generadores de estrés, incluidos los procedimientos médicos, la atención del equipo interdisciplinario y el dolor. El mejoramiento de los resultados negativos propios de la discapacidad en la edad escolar es posible mediante la estimulación temprana, adaptada a las necesidades y circunstancias individuales, involucrando a los padres y un equipo de profesionales multidisciplinario.  
Autor:
Claudia Lorena Perlaza
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
Universidad Santiago de Cali


Artículos publicados por Claudia Lorena Perlaza
Coautores
Aída Cristina Masson Rodriguez* Karen Erazo Zuluaga** 
Médica, Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia*
Estudiante, Universidad Santiago de Cali, Cali, Colombia**

Resumen
Un recién nacido es prematuro al nacer antes de las 37 semanas de edad gestacional. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud nacen niños prematuros en todo el mundo; en países de ingresos altos, medianos y bajos. Cada año nacen unos 15 millones de niños en estas condiciones, es decir 1 de cada 10. El nacimiento pretérmino es la principal causa de muerte infantil y de discapacidad a largo plazo en los países desarrollados. Los niños que sobreviven tienen riesgo de problemas respiratorios, cardíacos, cerebrales, entre otras complicaciones derivadas de la hospitalización o de la estadía prolongada en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN). La estimulación temprana busca disminuir los efectos negativos asociados con el ingreso a estas áreas de atención, y sus beneficios permiten minimizar los trastornos cerebrales, el estrés y el dolor inherentes al entorno de la UCIN. Igualmente, las estrategias de estimulación temprana utilizadas permiten la estabilización de la frecuencia cardíaca, fortalecen el tiempo del sueño, la relación madre e hijo, la saturación de oxígeno, y disminuyen la estadía hospitalaria. Asimismo, se abordan las escalas que, de acuerdo con diversos estudios, cuantifican el desarrollo neurológico del recién nacido, y genera datos de interés que complementan las investigaciones sobre neurodesarrollo. En esta revisión se realizará un breve resumen a partir de la literatura científica especializada, de la importancia de la estimulación temprana en el recién nacido, donde se proporcionará información de las alteraciones en el neurodesarrollo, beneficios, estrategias y escalas de intervención, relacionados a través de estudios científicos.

Palabras clave
estimulación temprana, neurodesarrollo, recién nacido, unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal, prematuro


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Abstract
A newborn is premature, being born before 37 weeks of gestational age, and according to the World Health Organization premature children are born worldwide; in high, middle and low income countries. About 15 million newborns are born each year under these conditions, or 1 in 10. Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death and long-term disability in developed countries. And those who survive are at risk for respiratory, heart, and brain problems, among other complications derived from hospitalization or prolonged stays in intensive care units. Early stimulation seeks to reduce the negative effects associated with admission to these areas of neonatal care, and its benefits allow minimizing the cerebral disorders, stress and pain inherent in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment, as well as the early stimulation strategies used, They allow heart rate stabilization, strengthen sleep time, mother and baby relationship, oxygen saturation, and subsequently decrease hospital stay. Likewise, the scales of neurodevelopment are addressed, which according to scientific studies, quantify the neurological development of the newborn, and generate interesting data that complement research on neurological development. In this review, a brief summary will be made from the specialized scientific literature of the importance of early stimulation in newborns admitted to intensive care units, where information on neurodevelopmental disorders, benefits, strategies and intervention scales, related through scientific studies.

Key words
early stimulation, neurodevelopment, newborn, neonatal intensive care unit, premature


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Educación Médica, Pediatría
Relacionadas: Cuidados Intensivos, Neurología



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Claudia Lorena Perlaza, Universidad Santiago de Clai, 760001, calle 46 # 109-39, Cali, Colombia
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