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HORMONAS TIROIDEAS, MASTOCITOS Y HUESO

HORMONAS TIROIDEAS, MASTOCITOS Y HUESO

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Las hormonas tiroideas son esenciales para el desarrollo, el crecimiento y la mineralización óseos. Los mastocitos de la médula ósea expresan receptores para hormonas tiroideas y se acumulan en un número elevado adyacentes al área del cartílago de crecimiento en ratas hipotiroideas en desarrollo. Estos hallazgos se asociaron con disgenesia del cartílago, depósitos anormales de matriz extracelular y con defectos en la formación ósea, la diferenciación hipertrófica condrocítica y la angiogénesis metafisaria.
williams.jpg Autor:
Graham Williams
Columnista Experto de SIIC
Artículos publicados por Graham Williams
Recepción del artículo
9 de Octubre, 2003
Primera edición
22 de Enero, 2004
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Los mastocitos sintetizan y secretan histamina y heparina, así como un amplio espectro de enzimas degradadoras de la matriz extracelular, factores de crecimiento, citoquinas y factores proangiogénicos. Muchas de estas moléculas también influyen en el reclutamiento, la diferenciación y la actividad de los osteoclastos, fenómenos que apuntan a la participación de los mastocitos en la regulación del esqueleto y del recambio óseo. Las hormonas tiroideas son esenciales para el desarrollo, el crecimiento y la mineralización del hueso. Recientemente, se comprobó que los mastocitos de la médula ósea expresan receptores para hormonas tiroideas y se acumulan en un número elevado adyacentes al área del cartílago de crecimiento en ratas en desarrollo. Según otros estudios, los mastocitos intervendrían en la pérdida ósea inducida por ooforectomía; y la reciente caracterización de ratones con deficiencia de histamina ha confirmado la participación de los mastocitos en la mineralización y el mantenimiento óseos. Esta revisión resume la información emergente en este nuevo campo que une la biología del mastocito con la integridad del esqueleto.

Palabras clave
Osificación endocondral, mastocitos, osteoclastos, osteoporosis, hormonas tiroideas, cartílago, osteosíntesis, hipotiroidismo, histamina, heparina


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Abstract
Mast cells synthesize and secrete histamine and heparin as well as a wide range of matrix-degrading enzymes, growth factors, cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors. Many of these molecules also influence the recruitment, differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, thus suggesting a role for mast cells in the regulation of skeletal development and bone turnover. Thyroid hormones are essential for normal skeletal development, growth and bone mineralization. We recently identified that bone marrow mast cells express thyroid hormone receptors and accumulate in increased numbers adjacent to the epiphyseal growth plate in growing rats. Other studies have suggested a role for mast cells in ovariectomy-induced bone loss and the recent characterization of histamine-deficient mice has confirmed a role for mast cells in bone mineralization and maintenance. This review summarizes emerging data in this new field that links mast cell biology with skeletal integrity.

Key words
Osificación endocondral, mastocitos, osteoclastos, osteoporosis, hormonas tiroideas, cartílago, osteosíntesis, hipotiroidismo, histamina, heparina


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Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos del Mundo >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Endocrinología y Metabolismo
Relacionadas: Bioquímica, Medicina Interna, Osteoporosis y Osteopatías Médicas



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