Conceptos Categóricos

PERFIL CLINICO E IMUNOLOGICO DAS MANIFESTAÇOES ALERGICAS RESPIRATORIAS EM PACIENTES INFECTADOS COM HTLV-1

PERFIL CLINICO E IMUNOLOGICO DAS MANIFESTAÇOES ALERGICAS RESPIRATORIAS EM PACIENTES INFECTADOS COM HTLV-1

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
A infecção pelo HTLV-1 (vírus linfotrópico da célula T humana do tipo 1) reduz a freqüência e a gravidade das manifestações clínicas de alergia, a reatividade cutânea a testes alérgicos de leitura imediata e altera o perfil de produção de citocinas Th1 e Th2.
souzamachado9.jpg Autor:
Adelmir Souza-machado
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública


Artículos publicados por Adelmir Souza-machado
Recepción del artículo
13 de Marzo, 2006
Aprobación
8 de Febrero, 2006
Primera edición
16 de Mayo, 2006
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Objetivos: Revisar as principais características da infecção pelo HTLV-1 e sua influência sobre a resposta imune tipo 2 em indivíduos atópicos. Métodos: A revisão foi feita a partir de estudos identificados em base de dados MedLine e Lilacs no período de 1980 a 2005. Resultados: O vírus HTLV-1 é um retrovírus que altera funcionalmente células importantes do sistema imune. A resposta imune antiviral e suas conseqüências moduladoras são reguladas principalmente através do gene viral tax. O HTLV-1 tem tropismo por linfócitos T CD4+ e CD8+, promove a proliferação espontânea destas células e a elevada produção de IFN. Na infecção pelo HTLV-1, a polarização Th1 da resposta imune reduz a produção de IL4, IgE e a reatividade cutânea imediata. As doenças alérgicas e parasitárias caracterizam-se por manifestações imunológicas predominantemente do tipo 2 com elevação de IL4 e ativação de mastócitos e eosinófilos. Indivíduos infectados com o vírus HTLV-1 por apresentarem forte resposta imune do tipo 1 são mais susceptíveis a infestações por helmintos mas podem atenuar as manifestações alérgicas. Conclusão: A resposta imune contra o HTLV-1 com elevada produção de IFN é ineficaz para a eliminação do vírus, mas promove alteração suficiente para supressão da resposta imune tipo 2 em um subgrupo de indivíduos atópicos.

Palabras clave
retrovírus, HTLV-1, asma, rinite, reatividade cutânea, citocinas


Artículo completo

(castellano)
Extensión:  +/-6.87 páginas impresas en papel A4
Exclusivo para suscriptores/assinantes

Abstract
Objective: To review the main characteristics of HTLV-1 infection and its influence upon the immune response type 2 in atopic individuals. Methods: This review was made by means of bibliographic raising of data files obtained through MedLine and Lilacs from 1980 to 2005. Results: The HTLV-1 is a retrovirus which functionally alters the cells of the immune system. The antiviral immune response and its modulatory responses are mainly regulated by means of the tax gene. The HTLV-1 has a tropism for CD4+ T-lymphocite, promotes proliferation of this group of cells spontaneously and increases IFN production. The HTLV-1 infection, polarizes the immune response towards a type 1 response and reduces IL4 production, IgE and the immediate skin reactivity. The allergic and parasitic diseases are predominantly characterized by type 2 of immunologic manifestations, enhanced IL4 and activation of mast cells and eosinophils. The HTLV-1 infected individuals show a strong type 1 immune response therefore are susceptable to acquire helminth infestation, but may inhibit allergic manifestations. Conclusions: The immune response against HTLV-1 with increased IFN production is unable to eliminate the virus, but promotes enough disturbance to supress the type 2 of immune response in atopic individuals.

Key words
retrovirus, HTLV-1, asthma, rhinitis, skin reactivity, cytokines


Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos de Iberoamérica >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Alergia
Relacionadas: Infectología, Inmunología, Medicina Interna



Comprar este artículo
Extensión: 6.87 páginas impresas en papel A4

file05.gif (1491 bytes) Artículos seleccionados para su compra



Enviar correspondencia a:
Adelmir Souza-Machado, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, 41.815-090, Rua Osvaldo Valente 602/1102 Itaigara, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil
Bibliografía del artículo
1. Manns A, Hisada M, Grenade LL. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. Lancet 1999; 353:1951-58.
2. Macchi B, Grelli S, Matteucci C. Human Th1 and Th2 T-cell clones are equally susceptible to infection and immortalization by human T lymphotropic virus type I. J Gen Virol 1998; 79:2469-74.
3. Biddison WE, Kubota R, Kawanishi T, Taub DD, Cruikshank WW, Center DM, Connor EW, Utz U, Jacobson S. Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-specific CD8+ CTL clones from patients with HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease secrete proinflamatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase. J Immunol 1997; 159:2018-25.
4. Ghezzi S, Alfano M, Biswas P, Mengozi M, Delfanti F, Cota M, Sozzani S, Lazarin A, Mantovani A, Poli G, Vicenzi E. Chemokines and HIV: more than just supression. J Acquired Hum Defic Hum Retrov 1997; 15 (Suppl 1):531-33.
5. Nakamura T. Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Ann Med 2000; 32:600-7.
6. Catovsky D, Greaves MF, Rose M, Galton DAG, Goolden AWG, McCluskey DR, White JM, Lampert I, Bourikas G, Ireland R, Brownell AI, Bridges JM, Blattner WA, Gallo RC. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia in blacks from the West Indians. Lancet 1982; 1:639-43.
7. Araújo MI, Bacellar O, Ribeiro de Jesus A, Carvalho EM. The absence of gamma-interferon production antigens in patients with schistosomiasis. Brazilian J Med Biol Res 1994; 27(7):1619-25.
8. Lagier B, Lebel B, Bousquet J, Pene J. Different modulation by histamine of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-g) release according to the phenotype of human Th0, Th1 and Th2 clones. Clin Exp Immunol 1997; 108:545-51.
9. Kraan TCTM, Snijders A, Boeije LCM, Groot ER, Alewijnse AE, Leurs R, Aarden LA. Histamine inhibits the production of interleukin-12 through interaction with H2 receptors. J Clin Invest 1998; 102:1866-73.
10. Shirakawa T, Enomoto T, Shimazu S, Hopkin JM. The inverse association between tuberculin responses and atopic disorder. Science 1997; 275:77-9.
11. Umetsu DT, DeKruyff RH. Updates on cells and cytokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 100:1-6.
12. Takamoto T, Makino M, Azuma M, Kanzaki T, Baba M, Sonoda S. HTLV-1- infected T cells activate autologous CD4+ T cells susceptible to HTLV-1 infection in a co-stimulatory dependent fashion. Eur J Immunol 1997; 27:1427-32.
13. Nagai M, Brennan MB, Sakai JA, Mora CA, Jacobson S. CD8+ T cells are an in vivo reservoir for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Blood 2001; 98:1858-61.
14. Southern SO, Southern PJ. Persistent HTLV-1 infection of breast luminal epithelial cells: role in HTLV-1 lymphotropic virus type I infected T cells: Its effiiciency as an antigen-presenting cell. Virology transmission? Virology 1998; 241:200-14.
15. Makino M, Shimokubo S, Wakmatsu SI, Izumo S, Baba M. The role of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)- infected dendritic cells in the development of HTLV-1- associated myelopathy/tropicalspastic paraparesis. J Virol 1999; 73:4575-81.
16. Shimokubo S, Wamakatsu SI, Maeda Y, Baba M, Makino M. Fusion of mature dendritic cells and human T- 2002; 301:13-20.
17. Lal RB, Rudolph DL, Dezzutti CS, Linsley OS, Prince HE. Costimulatory effects of T cell proliferation during infection with human T lymphotropic virus typeI and II are mediate trough CD80 and CD86 ligands. J immunol 1996; 157:1288-96.
18. Carvalho EM, Bacellar O, Porto AF, Braga S, Galvão-Castro B, Neva F. Cytokine profile and immunomodulation in asymptomatic human T-lymphotropic vírus type 1-infected blood donors. J Acq Immune Def Synd 2001; 27:1-6.
19. Kostense S, Ogg GS, Manting EH, Gillespie G, Joling J, Vandenberghe K, Veenhof EZ, van Baarle D, Jurriaans S, Klein MR, Miedema F. High viral burden in the presence of major HIV-specific CD8+ T cell expansion: evidence for impaired CTL effector function. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31:677-86.
20. Mossman TR, Moore KW. The role of IL10 in cross regulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. Immunol Today 1991; 12:48-53.
21. Wu XM, Osoegawa , Yamasaki K, Kawano Y, Ochi H, Horiuchi I, Minohara M, Ohyagi Y, Yamada T, Kira J. Flow cytometric diferentiation of Asian and Western types of multiple sclerosis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and hyperIgEaemic myelitis by analisis of memory CD4 positive T cell subsets and NK subsets. J Neurol Sci 2000; 177:24-31.
22. Yoshie O, Fusijawa R, Nakayama T, Harasawa H, Tago H, Izawa D, Hieshima K, Tatsumi Y, Matsushima K, Hasegawa H, Kanamaru A, Kamihira S, Yamada Y. Frequent expression of CCR4 in adult T-cell leukemia and human T-cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells. Blood 2002; 99:1505-11.
23. Azikuki S, Setoguchi M, Nazakato O. An autopsy case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy. Hum Pathol 1988; 6:988-90.
24. Kubota R, Kawanishi T, Matsubara H, Manns A, Jacobson S. HTLV-I specific IFN + CD8+ lymphocytes correlate with the proviral load in peripheral blood of infected individuals. J Neuroimmunology 2000; 102:208-15.
25. Satoh M, Toma H, Sato Y, Takara M, Kiyuna S, Hirayama K. Reduced efficacy of treatment of strongyloidiasis in HTLV-I carriers related to enhanced expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 1. Clin Exp Immunol 2002; 127:354-9.
26. Bugeon L, Dallman MJ. Costimulation of T cells. Am J Crit Care Med 2000; 162(Supp I):164-8.
27. Leng Q, Bentwich Z, Magen E, Kalinkovich A, Borkow G. CTLA-4 upregulation during HIV infection: association with anergy and possible target for therapeutic intervention. AIDS 2002; 16:519-29.
28. Krinzman SJ, De Sanctis GT, Cernadas , Mark D, Wang Y, Listman J, Kobzik L, Donovan C, Nassr K, Katona I, Christiani DC, Perkins Dl. Inhibition of T cell costimullation abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model. J Clin Invest 1996; 98:2693-99.
29. Clerici M, Shearer GM. A Th1-Th2 switch is a critical step in the etiology of HIV infection. Immunol Today 1993; 14:107-11.
30. Reuben JM, Lee BN, Paul M, Kline MW, Cron SG, Abramson S, Lewis D, Kozinetz CA, Shearer WT. Magnitude of IFN production in HIV-1-infected children is associated with virus suppression J Allerg Clin Immunol 2002; 110:255-61.
31. Van den Broek M, Bachmann MF, Köhler G, Barner M, Escher R, Zinkernagel R, Kopf M. IL-4 and IL-10 antagonize IL-12-mediated protection against acute vaccinia virus infection with a limited role of IFN and nitric oxide synthetase 2. J Immunol 2000; 164:371-78.
32. Schopf LR, Hoffmann KF, Cheever AW, Urban-Jr JF, Wynn TA. IL-10 is Critical for host resistance and survival during gastrointestinal helminth infection. J Immunol 2002; 168:2383-92.
33. Li-Weber M, Giaisi M, Chlichlia K, Khazaie K, Krammer PH. Human T cell leukemia virus type I tax enhances IL-4 gene expression in T cells. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31:2623-32.
34. Nakamura H, Weiss ST, Israel E, Luster AD, Drazen JM, Lilly CM. Eotaxin and impaired lung function in asthma. Am J Crit Care Med 1999; 160:1952-56.
35. Mogensen TH, Paludan SR. Molecular pathways in virus-induced cytokine production. Microb Mol Biol Rev 2001; 65:131-50.
36. Blumenthal SG, Aichele G, Wirth T, Cnernilofsky AP, Nordheim A, Dittimer J. Regulation of the human interleukin-5 promoter by Ets transcription factors. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:12910-16.
37. Miyamasu M, Yamaguchi M, Nakajima T, Misaki Y, Morita Y, Matsushima K, Yamamoto K, Hirai K. Th-1 derived cytokine IFN is a potent inhibitor of eotaxin synthesis in vitro. Int Immunol 1999; 6:1001-4.
38. Fujisawa T, Kato Y,Atsuta J, Terada A, Iguchi K, Kamiya H, Yamada H, Nakajima T, Miyamasu M, Hirai K. Chemokine production by BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells: Differential regulation of eotaxin, Il-8, and RANTES by Th2 and Th1-derived cytokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 105:126-33.
39. Yoshida M, Leigh R, Matsumoto K, Wattie J, Ellis R, O'Byrne PM. Effect of interferon- on allergic airway responses in interferon- -deficient mice. Am J Crit Mare Med 2002; 166:451-56.
40. Randolph DA, Stephens R, Carruthers CJL, Chaplin DD. Cooperation between Th1 and Th2 cells in a murine model of eosinophilic airway inflammation. J Clin Invest 1999; 104:1021-29.
41. Holgate ST. The cellular and mediator basis of asthma in relation to natural history. Lancet 1997; 350:5-9.
42. Yamaguchi M, Sayama K, Yano K, Lantz CS, Noben-Trauth N, Chisei Ra C, Costa JJ, Galli SJ. IgE Enhances Fc receptor I expression and IgE-dependent release of histamine and lipid mediators from human umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells: synergistic effect of IL-4 and IgE on human mast cell Fc receptor I expression and mediator release. J Immunol 1999; 162:5455-65.
43. Pawankar R. Mast cells as orchestrators of the allergic reaction: the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell network. Cur Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 1:3-6.
44. Delespesse G, Sarfati M, Peleman R. Influence of recombinant IL-4, IFN- and IFN on the production of human IgE-binding factor (soluble CD23). J Immunol 1989; 142:134-38.
45. Delespesse G, Sarfati M. Na update on human CD23 (FCeRII) and IgE-BFs (soluble CD23) play a essential role in the regulation of human IgE synthesis. Clin Exp Allergy 1990; 21(Supp 1):153-61.
46. Matsumoto T, Miike T, Mizoguchi K, Yamaguchi K, Takatsuki K, Hosoda M, Kawabe T, Yodoi J. Decreased serum levels of IgE and IgE binding factors in individuals infected with HTLV-I. Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 81:207-11.
47. Horiuchi I, Kawano Y, Yamasaki K, Minohara M, Furue M, Taniwaki T, Miyazaki T, Kira J. Th1 dominance in HAM/TSP and optico-spinal form of multiple sclerosis versus Th2 dominance in mite antigen-specific IgE myelitis. J Neurol Sci 2000; 172:17-24.
48. Hayashi J, Kishihara Y, Yoshimura E, Furusyo N, Yamaji K, Kawakami Y, Murakami H, Kashiwagi S. Correlation between human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 and Strogyloides stercoralis infections and serum immunoglobulin E responses in residents of Okinawa, Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997; 56:71-5.
49. Terashima A, Gotuzzo E, Alvarez H, Infante R, Tello R, Watts D, Freedman D. Strongyloides stercoralis: clinical severe forms associated to HTLV-1 infection. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 1999; 19:35-40.
50. Porto AF, Neva FA, Bitencourt H, Lisboa W, Thompson R, Alcantara L, Carvalho EM. HTLV-1 decreases Th2 type of immune response in patients with strogyloidiasis. Parasit Immunol 2001; 23:503-7.
51. Porto AF, Oliveira Filho J, Neva FA, Orge G, Alcantara L, Gam A, Carvalho EM. Influence of Human T-call lymphotropic virus type 1 infection on serologic and skin tests for strongyloidiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001; 65:610-13.
52. Neva FA. Letter to editor: a reply to Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in patients coinfected with HTLV-1 and S. stercoralis. Am J Med 1993; 94:448-9.
53. Souza-Machado A., Galvão TS, Porto A, Figueiredo J, Cruz AA. Skin reactivity to aeroallergens is reduced in human T-lymphotropic virus type I-infected healthy blood-donors (asymptomatic carriers). Allergy 2005; 60:379-84.
54. Souza-Machado, Cunha C, Porto A. Frequency of respiratory disorders in HTLV-1 infected subjects. J Pneumol 2002; 28:66.
55. Souza-Machado A, Cruz AA, Galvão TS, Santos S, Carvalho EM. Paradoxical coexistence of atopic asthma and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) infection: a case report. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2004; 348-51.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Está expresamente prohibida la redistribución y la redifusión de todo o parte de los contenidos de la Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica (SIIC) S.A. sin previo y expreso consentimiento de SIIC.
ua31618
-->