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LOS ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN LA ERA DEL VIH, SOLUCIONES A UN PROBLEMA CRECIENTE

LOS ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN LA ERA DEL VIH, SOLUCIONES A UN PROBLEMA CRECIENTE

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Para disminuir el riesgo de transmisión del HIV por un accidente ocupacional entre los trabajadores de la salud es necesario utilizar medidas de prevención universal, profilaxis posexposición cuando esté indicada y, por sobre todas las cosas, tomar conciencia de este grave problema.
wig9.jpg Autor:
Naveet Wig
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine


Artículos publicados por Naveet Wig
Coautores
Surya Prakash Bhatt* Ankit Sakhuja** Surendra Kumar Malhotra*** 
MBBS, MD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Nueva Delhi, India*
MBBS Student, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Nueva Delhi, India**
MBBS, MD, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Anesthesia, Chandigarh, India***
Recepción del artículo
30 de Mayo, 2006
Aprobación
16 de Junio, 2006
Primera edición
1 de Septiembre, 2006
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
25 de Octubre, 2007

Resumen
El VIH/sida cambió la forma en que la profesión médica trata a los pacientes. Algunos médicos desinformados todavía le dan la espalda a casos sospechados o confirmados de VIH/sida por temor a contraer la enfermedad ellos mismos, especialmente en el mundo en vías de desarrollo. Aumentar el conocimiento de las medidas de prevención universal y las formas de contagio del VIH resultó en tratamientos mejores para estos pacientes. Los trabajadores de la salud se exponen cada vez más a pacientes con VIH/sida, de los cuales un gran número es clínicamente silente. Hay pocos datos de los países en vías de desarrollo y la tasa de exposición es alta ante la falta de acceso a recursos necesarios para medidas de prevención universal. Al no contar con una vacuna efectiva, las medidas precautorias universales y la profilaxis posexposición siguen siendo el pilar para abordar este riesgo ocupacional. El riesgo de seroconversión luego de una herida penetrante con aguja puede ser reducido por la noción de los fluidos corporales que son más riesgosos y por el conocimiento de la existencia de la profilaxis posexposición luego de la lesión con una aguja posiblemente contaminada con el VIH. La falta de conocimiento del riesgo que implica y las medidas a implementar en el caso de una exposición accidental a fluidos corporales contaminados es alarmante. En la mayoría de los hospitales, los controles laborales para la prevención de la exposición son inadecuados o poco utilizados. Ya es tiempo de que abordemos este tema de enorme e inmediata preocupación para los trabajadores de la salud, con una mayor orientación en el manejo de esta "peste" de los tiempos modernos.

Palabras clave
VIH, exposición ocupacional, conciencia, trabajador de la salud


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Abstract
HIV/AIDS has changed the way the medical profession cares for patients. Uninformed doctors still turn away suspected and confirmed cases of HIV/AIDS for fear of contracting the disease themselves, especially in the developing world. Increasing awareness of universal precautions and the modes of spread of HIV has resulted in better care for such patients. Health care workers (HCWs) are getting increasingly exposed to patients with HIV/AIDS, a large number of whom are clinically silent. Data from developing countries is lacking, and exposure rate is high in the absence of access to resources needed for universal precautions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, universal precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis remain the mainstay of tackling this occupational hazard. The risk of seroconversion after a needlestick injury may be reduced by knowledge of body fluids that are high risk and awareness of postexposure prophylaxis after possible HIV-contaminated needlestick injury. The lack of awareness of risk involved and the measures to be taken in case of accidental exposure to contaminated body fluids is alarming. In most hospitals, work-practice controls for exposure prevention are either inadequate or underutilized. It is high time we tackled this issue of immense immediate concern to health care professionals, with a larger bearing on handling this plague of modern times.

Key words
HIV, occupational exposure, awareness, health care worker


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Especialidades
Principal: Infectología
Relacionadas: Anestesiología, Atención Primaria, Bioética, Bioquímica, Cirugía, Cuidados Intensivos, Emergentología, Enfermería, Inmunología, Medicina del Trabajo, Medicina Interna, Medicina Legal, Nefrología y Medio Interno, Salud Pública



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Naveet Wig, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, 110029, Nueva Delhi, India
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