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EL SUPLEMENTO DE ACIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3 SERIA UTIL PARA TRATAR LA DEPRESION EN LA DIABETES MELLITUS TIPO 2
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ANTIDEPRESIVOS Y VARIABLES CLÍNICAS AVANZADAS DE LA DIABETES EN PACIENTES CON DEPRESIÓN Y DIABETES
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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EL SUPLEMENTO DE ACIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3 SERIA UTIL PARA TRATAR LA DEPRESION EN LA DIABETES MELLITUS TIPO 2

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Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 pueden tener otros efectos beneficiosos en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2: pueden ser útiles en la prevención y el tratamiento de la depresión, una complicación frecuente y agobiante de esta enfermedad.
Autor:
Frans Pouwer
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre


Artículos publicados por Frans Pouwer
Recepción del artículo
30 de Marzo, 2007
Aprobación
27 de Septiembre, 2007
Primera edición
15 de Mayo, 2008
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Objetivos: Las pruebas sugieren firmemente que la depresión es más frecuente en los individuos con diabetes tipo 2. Sin embargo, la depresión es una entidad subdetectada y todavía se puede mejorar la eficacia de los agentes antidepresivos farmacológicos, ya que la farmacoterapia sólo conduce a la remisión en el 50% al 60% de los individuos depresivos con diabetes. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar si es posible utilizar ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la familia ω-3 en la prevención y el tratamiento de la depresión en la diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se utilizó la base de datos Medline y listas de referencias publicadas para identificar estudios que examinaran las asociaciones entre ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 y depresión. Para examinar los efectos colaterales potenciales, como aquellos sobre el control de la glucemia, se revisaron también algunos estudios en relación con el uso de suplementos de ω-3 en la diabetes tipo 2. Resultados: Algunos estudios epidemiológicos y clínicos sugieren que una ingesta elevada de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 protege contra la aparición de depresión. También existen pruebas de que el bajo consumo de ω-3 se asocia con un riesgo aumentado de diabetes tipo 2, pero los resultados son menos concluyentes. Los resultados de ensayos aleatorizados controlados en individuos no diabéticos con depresión mayor muestran que el ácido eicosapentaenoico es un tratamiento coadyuvante eficaz de la depresión en la diabetes, mientras que el ácido docosahexanoico no lo es. Más aun, el consumo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 reduce el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y, por lo tanto, puede disminuir indirectamente la depresión en la diabetes tipo 2, a través de la reducción de las complicaciones cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: El suplemento de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3, en particular el de ácido eicosapentaenoico, puede ser una herramienta segura y útil para reducir la incidencia de depresión y tratarla en la diabetes tipo 2. A partir de estas conclusiones, se justifica realizar otros estudios para evaluar estas hipótesis en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2.

Palabras clave
diabetes, depresión, ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega 3, fosfolípidos, síndrome metabólico


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Abstract
Aims: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is more common in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, depression is underdetected and there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the ω-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Medline database and published reference lists were used to identify studies that examined the associations between ω-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of ω-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. Results: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of ω-3 PUFA protects against the development of depression. There is also some evidence that a low intake of ω-3 is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are less conclusive. Results from randomized controlled trials in non-diabetic subjects with major depression show that eicosapentaenoic acid is an effective adjunct treatment of depression in diabetes, while docosahexanoic acid is not. Moreover, consumption of ω-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular complications. Conclusions: Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, may be a safe and helpful tool to reduce the incidence of depression and to treat depression in Type 2 diabetes. Further studies are now justified to test these hypotheses in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Key words
diabetes, depression, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, metabolic syndrome


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Especialidades
Principal: Salud Mental
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Diabetología, Epidemiología, Medicina Interna, Nutrición



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Frans Pouwer, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre EMGO Institute, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, Países Bajos
Patrocinio y reconocimiento:
Esta investigación recibió una beca de la Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NOW-940-34-007).
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