Conceptos Categóricos

DESCRIBEN LA APLICACION DE LA VACUNA BIVALENTE CONTRA EL CANCER DE CUELLO UTERINO
Artículos relacionadosArtículos relacionadosArtículos relacionados
Artículos afines de siicsalud publicados en los últimos 4 meses

DESCRIBEN LA APLICACION DE LA VACUNA BIVALENTE CONTRA EL CANCER DE CUELLO UTERINO

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
Aseguran que la mayor utilidad de la vacuna bivalente contra el HPV sería para las mujeres que no se someten rutinariamente a los programas de tamizaje.
Autor:
Diane M Harper
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
University of Missouri-Kansas


Artículos publicados por Diane M Harper
Recepción del artículo
17 de Enero, 2011
Aprobación
23 de Junio, 2011
Primera edición
15 de Noviembre, 2011
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
Casi medio millón de mujeres en todo el mundo presentan cáncer de cuello uterino cada año,1 el 80% de estas mujeres se encuentran en países sin una garantía de calidad del programa de tamizaje por citología. Es en este contexto que la vacuna bivalente podría reducir la incidencia de cáncer de cuello uterino en alrededor de 9.5/100 000 mujeres. Existen nuevos datos que indican que esto podría lograrse con una sola dosis de la vacuna bivalente, una gran ventaja para los programas de aplicación en salud pública.2 En los países con los programas de cribado, el adenocarcinoma es el cáncer más difícil de detectar y tratar, ya que se presenta en forma tardía y con una mayor mortalidad.3,4 Con una protección cruzada adicional para el HPV 31, 33 y 45, y la protección contra el HPV 16 y 18 de al menos 8.4 años de duración, la vacuna bivalente puede reducir más del 90% de los adenocarcinomas en las mujeres de las poblaciones seleccionadas. En esta revisión se detalla la información sobre la eficacia, inmunogenicidad y seguridad de la vacuna bivalente en las poblaciones estudiadas, y se contrastan los objetivos en el plano de la salud pública con las opciones de salud a nivel individual.

Palabras clave
vacuna bivalente, cáncer de cuello uterino, prevención, inmunogenicidad, CIN 2/3, adenocarcinoma, detección, mujeres maduras, adolescentes, mujeres jóvenes


Artículo completo

(castellano)
Extensión:  +/-23.83 páginas impresas en papel A4
Exclusivo para suscriptores/assinantes

Abstract
Nearly a half a million women throughout the world develop cervical cancer every year;1 80% of these women are in countries without a quality assured cytology screening program. It is in this setting that bivalent HPV vacine could reduce the incidence of cervical cancer to about 9.5/100 000 women. New evidence indicates that this might be able to be accomplished with a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine, a great advantage to public health implementation programs.2

In countries with screening programs, adenocarcinoma is the most difficult to detect and treat with later stage presentation and higher mortality.3,4 With additional cross protection to HPV 31, 33 and 45, and protection against HPV 16 and 18 lasting at least 8.4 years, bivalent HPC vaccine may reduce adenocarcinomas in screened populations by more than 90%.

This review will detail the evidence about the efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of bivalent HPV vaccine in the studied populations contrasting public health goals with individual health options.

Key words
bivalent HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, prevention, immunogenicity, CIN 2/3, adenocarcinoma, screening, mature women, adolescent girls, young women


Full text
(english)
para suscriptores/ assinantes

Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos del Mundo >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Infectología, Obstetricia y Ginecología
Relacionadas: Anatomía Patológica, Atención Primaria, Inmunología, Medicina Familiar, Medicina Interna, Oncología, Pediatría, Salud Pública



Comprar este artículo
Extensión: 23.83 páginas impresas en papel A4

file05.gif (1491 bytes) Artículos seleccionados para su compra



Enviar correspondencia a:
Diane M Harper, University of Missouri-Kansas School of Medicine, MO 64139, 7900 Lee's Summit Road, Kansas, EE.UU.
Bibliografía del artículo
1. Parkin DM, Bray F. Chapter 2. The burden of HPV-related cancers. Vaccine. 24Suppl 3, S3/11-25, 2006.

2. Kreimer AR, Rodriguez AC, HildesheimA, Herrero R, Porras C, Schiffman M, Gonzalez P, Solomon D, Jimenez S, Schiller J. Proof-of-Principle: Efficacy of fewer than 3-doses of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against incident persistent HPV infection in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Presented at 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 3-8, 2010.

3. Smith HO, Tiffany MF, Qualls CR, Key CR. The rising incidence of adenocarcinoma relative to squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the United States - a 24-year population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 78(2):97-105, 2000.

4. Gunnell AS, Ylitalo N, Sandin S. A longitudinal Swedish study on screening for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: evidence of effectiveness and overtreatment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(12):2641-2648, 2007.

5. Schiffman MH, Burk, RD. Human papillomaviruses. In: Evans AS, Daslow RA, eds. Viral infections of humans: Epidemiology and control, 4th ed. New York: Plenum Medical Book Company. pp 983-1023; 1997.

6. zur Hausen H. Condylomata acuminata and human genital cancer. Cancer Res 36(2 pt 2):794, 1976.

7. Meisels A, Fortin R. Condylomatous lesions of the cervix and vagina. I. Cytologic patterns. Acta Cytol 20(6):505-509, 1976.

8. Franco EL, Harper DM. Vaccination against human papillomavirus infection: a new paradigm in cervical cancer control. Vaccine 23(17-18):2388-2394, 2005.

9. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ; International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 348(6):518-27, 2003.

10. Bouvard V, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, et al. A review of human carcinogens - Part B: biological agents. Lancet Oncol 10:321-322, 2009.

11. Khan MJ, Castle PE, Lorincz AT, Wacholder S, Sherman M, Scott DR, Rush BB, Glass AG, Schiffman M. The elevated 10-year risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 and the possible utility of type-specific HPV testing in clinical practice. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(14):1072-9, 2005.

12. Arrand JR. Chapter 2: Molecular genetics of human papillomaviruses. In: Human Papillomaviruses and cervical cancer: Biology and Immunology. Stern PL and Stanley MA (Eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, USA. pp 28-37, 1994.

13. *Schiffman M, Rodríguez AC. Heterogeneity in CIN3 diagnosis. Lancet Oncol 9(5):404-6, 2008.
*This reference puts together the natural history of HPV causing cytologic abnormalities to the development of CIN 3.

14. *McCredie MR, Sharples KJ, Paul C, Baranyai J, Medley G, Jones RW, Skegg DC. Natural history of cervical neoplasia and risk of invasive cancer in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 9:425-34, 2008.
*This reference documents the slow progression to cancer from CIN 3.

15. Ostör AG. Natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a critical review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:186-92, 1993.

16. Castle PE, Schiffman M, Wheeler CM, Wentzensen N, Gravitt PE. Impact of improved classification on the association of human papillomavirus with cervical precancer. Am J Epidemiol 171(2):155-63, 2010.

17. Carreon JD, Sherman ME, Guillén D, Solomon D, Herrero R, Jerónimo J, et al. CIN2 is a much less reproducible and less valid diagnosis than CIN3: results from a histological review of population-based cervical samples. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26(4):441-6, 2007.

18. Moscicki AB, Ma Y, Wibbelsman C, Darragh T, Fahrat S, Powers A, et al. Risk for CIN 2 regression and progression in adolescents and young women. 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, Montreal, Canada, (July 3-8, 2010).

19. Zhang WY, Xue YZ, Chen M, Han , Luo M. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in different cervical lesion among organized health-examination women in Shanghai, China. Chin Med J 121(16):1578-1582, 2008.

20. Cuschieri K, Wentzensen N. Human papillomavirus mRNA and p16 detection as biomarkers for the improved diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:2536-45, 2008.

21. *Trottier H, Mahmud SM, Lindsay L, Jenkins D, Quint W, Wieting SL, Schuind A, Franco EL on behalf of the GSK HPV-001 Vaccine Study Group. Persistence of an Incident Human Papillomavirus Infection and Timing of Cervical Lesions in Previously Unexposed Young Women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(3):854-62, 2009.
*This outstanding reference proves that it is on average about 4 years from HPV infection until cytologic abnormality occurs.

22. Castle PE, Wacholder S, Lorincz AT, et al. A prospective study of high-grade cervical neoplasia risk among human papillomavirus infected women. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1406-14, 2002.

23. Dalstein V, Riethmuller D, Pretet JL, et al. Persistence and load of high-risk HPV are predictors for development of high-grade cervical lesions: a longitudinal French cohort study. Int J Cancer 106:396-403, 2003.

24. Bruni L, Diaz M, Castellsague´ X, Ferrer E, Bosch FX, de Sanjose´ S. Cervical Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in 5 Continents: Meta-Analysis of 1 Million Women with Normal Cytological Findings. Journal Infectious Diseases 202(12):1789-1799, 2010.

25. Kitchener HC, Almonte M, Thomson C, Wheeler P, Sargent A, Stoykova B, Gilham C, Baysson H, Roberts C, Dowie R, Desai M, Mather J, Bailey A, Turner A, Moss S, Peto J. HPV testing in combination with liquid-based cytology in primary cervical screening (ARTISTIC): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 10:672-82, 2009.

26. Schiffman M, Kjaer SK. Chapter 2: Natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 31:14-9, 2003.

27. Eversole GM, Moriarty AT, Schwartz MR, et al. Practices of participants in the College of American Pathologists interlaboratory comparison program in cervicovaginal cytology, 2006. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:331-5, 2010.

28. *Trottier H, Mahmud S, Prado JCM, Sobrinho JS, Costa MC, Rohan TE, Villa LL, Franco EL. Type-specific duration of human papillomavirus infection: Implications for human papillomavirus screening and vaccination. Journal of Infectious Diseases 197:1436-47, 2008.
*This reference shows with detailed clarity the regression rate of HPV infections.

29. Ho GY, Studentsov YY, Bierman R, Burk RD. Natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particle antibodies in young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:110-116, 2004.

30. Porras C, Bennett C, Safaeian M, Coseo S, Rodriguez AC, Gonzalez P et al. Determinants of seropositivity among HPV 16/18 DNA positive young women. BMC Infectious Diseases 10:238, 2010.

31. Coseo S, Porras C, Hildesheim A, Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Herrero R, et al. Seroprevalence and correlates of human papillomavirus 16/18 seropositivity among young women in Costa Rica. Sex Transm Dis 37(11):706-14, 2010.

32. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Hughes JP, Lee SK, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, Galloway DA.
Comparison of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 6 capsid antibody responses following incident infection. J InfectDis 181:1911-1919, 2000.

33. Olsson SE, Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K, et al. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection. Hum Vaccin 5(10):696-704, 2009.

34. Safaeian M, Porras C, Schiffman M, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S, Gonzalez P, et al. Epidemiological Study of Anti-HPV16/18 Seropositivity and Subsequent Risk of HPV16 and -18 Infections. J Natl Cancer Inst 102(21):1653-1662, 2010.

35. Viscidi RP, Schiffman M, Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Castle PE, Bratti MC, Rodriguez AC, Sherman ME, Wang S, Clayman B, Burk RD. Seroreactivity to human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, or 31 and risk of subsequent HPV infection: results from a population-based study in Costa Rica. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(2):324-7, 2004.

36. Stanley M. Immune responses to human papillomavirus. Vaccine 24 Suppl 1:S16-22, 2006.

37. Cubie HA, Plumstead M, Zhang W, de Jesus O, Duncan LA, Stanley MA. Presence of antibodies to human papillomavirus virus-like particles (VLPs) in 11-13-year-old schoolgirls. J Med Virol 56(3):210-6, 1998.

38. Dunne EF, Karem KL, Sternberg MR, Stone KM, Unger ER, Reeves WC, Markowitz LE. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 in children. J Infect Dis 191(11):1817-9, 2005.

39. Rintala MA, Grénman SE, Järvenkylä ME, Syrjänen KJ, Syrjänen SM. High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral and genital mucosa of infants during their first 3 years of life: experience from the Finnish HPV Family Study. Clin Infect Dis 41(12):1728-33, 2005.

40. Rice PS, Cason J, Best JM, Banatvala JE. High risk genital papillomavirus infections are spread vertically. Rev Med Virol 9(1):15-21, 1999.

41. Castellsagué X, Drudis T, Cañadas MP, Goncé A, Ros R, Pérez JM, Quintana MJ, Muñoz J, Albero G, de Sanjosé S, Bosch FX. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain. BMC Infect Dis 9:74, 2009.

42. Rintala MA, Grénman SE, Puranen MH, Isolauri E, Ekblad U, Kero PO, Syrjänen SM. Transmission of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) between parents and infant: a prospective study of HPV in families in Finland. J Clin Microbiol 43(1):376-81, 2005.

43. Muñoz N, Méndez F, Posso H, Molano M, van den Brule AJ, Ronderos M, Meijer C, Muñoz A; Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia HPV Study Group. Incidence, duration, and determinants of cervical human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of Colombian women with normal cytological results. J Infect Dis 190(12):2077-87, 2004.

44. Sellors JW, Karwalajtys TL, Kaczorowski J, Mahony JB, Lytwyn A, Chong S, Sparrow J, Lorincz A; Survey of HPV in Ontario Women Group. Incidence, clearance and predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women. CMAJ 168(4):421-5, 2003.

45. Franco EL, Villa LL, Sobrinho JP, Prado JM, Rousseau MC, Désy M, Rohan TE. Epidemiology of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women from a high-risk area for cervical cancer. J Infect Dis 180(5):1415-23, 1999.

46. Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, Neal KR, Coupland C, Vryenhoef P, Johnson J, Jenkins D. Cervical human papillomavirus screening among older women. Emerg Infect Dis 11(11):1680-5, 2005.

47. Castellsagué X, Schneider A, Kaufmann AM, Bosch FX. HPV vaccination against cervical cancer in women above 25 years of age: key considerations and current perspectives. Gynecol Oncol 115(3 Suppl):S15-23, 2009.

48. Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Bratti C, Sherman ME, Solomon D, Guillen D, Alfaro M, Morales J, Hutchinson M, Katki H, Cheung L, Wacholder S, Burk RD. Longitudinal study of human papillomavirus persistence and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3: critical role of duration of infection. J Natl Cancer Inst 102:1-10, 2010.

49. Gonzalez P, Hildesheim A, Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Porras C, Wacholder S, Garcia-Pineres A, Pinto LA, Bruk RD, Herrero R. Behavioral/lifestyle and immunological factors associated with HPV infection among women older than 45 years of age. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10.1158/1055-9965.epi-10-0645, 2010.

50. Porras C, Rodríguez AC, Hildesheim A, Herrero R, González P, Wacholder S, Burk RD, Schiffman M. Human papillomavirus types by age in cervical cancer precursors: predominance of human papillomavirus 16 in young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(3):863-5, 2009.

51. Trottier H, Ferreira S, Thomann P, Costa MC, Sobrinho JS, Prado JCM, Rohan TE, Villa LL, Franco EL. Human papillomavirus infection and re-infection in adult women: the role of sexual activity and natural immunity. Cancer Res 70(21):8569-77, 2010.

52. Edgren G, Sparen P. Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Oncol 8(4):311-6, 2007.

53. Kalliala I, Anttila A, Pukkala E, Nieminen P. Risk of cervical and other cancers after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 331:1183-5, 2005.

54. Strander B, Andersson-Ellström A, Milsom I, Sparén P. Long term risk of invasive cancer after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3: population based cohort study. BMJ 335(7629):1077, 2007.

55. Martin-Hirsch PP, Paraskevaidis E, Bryant A, Dickinson HO, Keep SL. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6, CD001318, 2010.

56. Ghaem-Maghami S, Sagi S, Majeed G, Soutter WP. Incomplete excision of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and risk of treatment failure: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 8(11):985-93, 2007.

57. Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, Markowitz LE. Prevalence of HPV Infection Among Females in the United States. JAMA 297:813-819, 2007.

58. Clifford GM, Gallus S, Herrero R, Muñoz N, Snijders PJF, Vaccarella S, Anh PTH, Ferreccio C, Hieu NT, Matos E, Molano M, Rajkumar R, Ronco G , de Sanjosé S, Shin HR, Sukvirach S, Thomas JO, Tunsakul S, Meijer CJLM, Franceschi S,and the IARC HPV Prevalence Surveys Study Group. Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis. Lancet 366:991-98, 2005.

59. FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 356(19):1915-27, 2007.

60. Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmerón J, Wheeler CM, Chow SN, Apter D, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet 374(9686):301-14, 2009.
**This reference reports the critical phase III analysis of Cervarix' efficacy.

61. Clifford GM, Rana RK, Franceschi S, Smith JS, Gough G, Pimenta JM. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in low-grade cervical lesions: comparison by geographic region and with cervical cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(5):1157-64, 2005.

62. Clifford GM, Smith JS, Aguado T, Franceschi S. Comparison of HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Cancer 89:101-105, 2003.

63. de Sanjose S, Quint WGV, Alemany L, Geraets DT, Klaustermeier JE, Lloveras B, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. Lancet Oncol 11:1048-56, 2010.

64. Castellsagué X, Díaz M, de Sanjosé S, Muñoz N, Herrero R, Franceschi S, Peeling RW, Ashley R, Smith JS, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ, Bosch FX; International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study GroupWorldwide human papillomavirus etiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and its cofactors: implications for screening and prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):303-15, 2006.

65. Schiffman M. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination, cytology, and human papillomavirus testing. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 111:145-53, 2007.

66. **Berkhof J, Bogaards J, Coupé V, Meijer CJM. Modelling the influence of screening uptake on the future incidence of cervical cancer and the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Presented orally at 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, July 3-8, 2010, Montreal, Canada.
**This model and models from this groups cost effectiveness center have been instrumental in putting vaccination benefits in perspective with cervical cancer screening programs. This shows that vaccination without continued Pap screening leads to an increase in cervical cancer.

67. ** Harper DM, Nieminen P, Paavonen J, Lehtinen M. Cervical cancer incidence can increase despite HPV vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis 10(9):594-5, 2010.
**This reference shows with great detail the risk of lack of screening in both a vaccinated and unvaccinated population.

68. **Barnabas RV, Laukkanen P, Koskela P, Kontula O, Lehtinen M, Garnett GP. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: Mathematical modeling analyses. PLoS Med 3:e138, 2006.
**Critical reference indicating the 15 year threshold that HPV vaccines have to last in order to prevent, not just postpone, cervical cancers.

69. Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int. J. Cancer 118:3030-3044, 2006.

70. Myers ER. The economic impact of HPV vaccines: not just cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198(5):487-8, 2008.

71. Ginsberg GM, Edejer TT, Lauer JA, Sepulveda C. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis. Vaccine 27(43):6060-79, 2009.

72. Kim JJ, Goldie SJ. Health and economic implication of HPV vaccination in the United States. N Engl J Med 359:821-32, 2008.

73. Kim JJ, Brisson M, Edmunds WJ, Goldie SJ. Modeling cervical cancer prevention in developed countries. Vaccine 26 Suppl 10:K76-86, 2008.

74. Chesson HW, Ekwueme DU, Saraiya M, Markowitz LE. Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:244-251, 2008.

75. Vanagas G, Pagaiga Z, Kurtinaitis J, Logminiene Z. Cost effectiveness of 12- and 15-year-old girls' human papillomavirus 16/18 population-based vaccination programmes in Lithuania. Scan J of Public Health 38:639-647, 2010.

76. Bosch FX and de Sanjose S. Chapter 1. Human Papillomavirus and cervical cancer- burden and assessment of causality. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 31:3-13, 2003.

77. Insinga RP, Glass AG, Rush BB. Diagnoses and outcomes in cervical cancer screening: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191(1):105-113, 2004.

78. Paavonen J on behalf of the HPV PATRICIA Study Group. Efficacy of HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against abnormal cytology, colposcopy, colposcopy referrals and cervical procedures. Presentation # SS 4-1. EuroGin. Monte Carlo, Monaco February 17-20, 2009.

79. Kulasingam SL, Pagliusi S, Myers E. Potential effects of decreased cervical cancer screening participation after HPV vaccination: an example from the U.S. Vaccine 25(48):8110-3, 2007.

80. Brisson M, Van de Velde N, Boily MC. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries. Public Health Genomics 12(5-6):343-51, 2009.

81. Zechmeister I, Blasio BF, Garnett G, Neilson AR, Siebert U. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus-vaccination programs to prevent cervical cancer in Austria. Vaccine 27(37):5133-41, 2009.

82. Jit M, Choi YH, Edmunds WJ. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom. BMJ 337:a769, 2008.

83. Coupe VMH, van Ginkel J, de Melker HE, Snijders PJF, Meijer CJLM, Berkhof J. HPV16/18 vaccination to prevent cervical cancer in The Netherlands: Model-based cost-effectiveness. Int J Cancer 124:970-978, 2009.

84. de Kok IMCM, van Ballegooijen M, Habbema JDF. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:1083-92, 2009.

85. Goldie SJ, Diaz M, Constenla D, Alvis N, Andrus JK, Kim SY. Mathematical models of cervical cancer prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean. Vaccine 26 Suppl 11:L59-72, 2008.

86. Kim JJ, Kobus KE, Diaz M, O'Shea M, Van Minh H, Goldie SJ. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Vietnam: insights for evidence-based cervical cancer prevention policy. Vaccine 26(32):4015-24, 2008.

87. Diaz M, Kim JJ, Albero G, de Sanjose S, Clifford G, Bosch FX, et al. Health and economic impact of HPV 16 and 18 vaccination and cervical cancer screening in India. Br J Cancer 99(2):230-8, 2008.

88. Van de Velde N, Brisson M, Boily MC. Modeling human papillomavirus vaccine
effectiveness: quantifying the impact of parameter uncertainty. Am J Epidemiol
165(7):762-75, 2007.

89. Kim JJ, Kobus KE, Diaz M, O'Shea M, Van Minh H, Goldie SJ. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Vietnam: insights for evidence-based cervical cancer prevention policy. Vaccine 26(32):4015-24, 2008.

90. Garnett GP, Kim JJ, French K, Goldie SJ. Chapter 21: modelling the impact of HPV vaccines on cervical cancer and screening programmes. Vaccine 24(Suppl. 3):178-86, 2006.

91. Brisson M, Van de Velde N, De Wals P, Boily MC. The potential cost effectiveness of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines in Canada. Vaccine 25(29):5399-408, 2007.

92. Oddsson K, Johannsson J, Asgeirsdottir TL, Gudnason T. Cost-effectiveness of human papilloma virus vaccination in Iceland. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88(12):1411-6, 2009.

93. **Harper DM and Vierthaler SL. Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine approved for males and females for HPV associated diseases. Expert Reviews, 2011.
**This review puts Gardasil in perspective with its claims for cervical cancer prevention.

94. Harper DM, Williams KB. Prophylactic HPV Vaccines: Current Knowledge of Impact on Gynecologic Premalignancies. Discovery Medicine 10:7-17, 2010.

95. Lancucki L, Fender M, Koukari A, Lynge E, Mai V, Mancini E, Onysko J, Ronco G, Tornberg S, Vessey M, Patnick J. A fall-off in cervical screening coverage of younger women in developed countries. J Med Screen 17(2):91-6, 2010.

96. Didierlaurent AM, Morel S, Lockman L, Giannini SL, Bisteau M, Carlsen H, Kielland A, Vosters O, Vanderheyde N, Schiavetti F, Larocque D, Van Mechelen M, Garçon N. AS04, an aluminum salt- and TLR4 agonist-based adjuvant system, induces a transient localized innate immune response leading to enhanced adaptive immunity. J Immunol 183(10):6186-97, 2009.

97. Garcon N, Van Mechelen M, Wettendorff M. Development and evaluation of AS04, a novel and improved adjuvant system containing PL and aluminium salt. In: Schijns VEJC, O'Hagan DT, editors. Immunopotentiators in modern vaccines. London: Elsevier Academic Press. pp 161-77, 2006.

98. Boland G, Beran J, Lievens M et al. Safety and immunogenicity profile of an experimental hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with As04. Vaccine 23:316-20, 2004.

99. Thoelen S, De Clercq N, Tornieporth N. A prophylactic hepatitis B vaccine with a novel adjuvanted system. Vaccine 19:2400-3, 2001.

100. Tong NK, Beran J, Kee SA, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in pre-hemodialysis and hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 68:2298-303, 2005.

101. Giannini SL, Hanon E, Moris P, et al. Enhanced humoral and memory B cellular immunity using HPV 16/18 L1 VLP vaccine formulated with the MPL/aluminium salt combination (AS04) compared to aluminium salt only. Vaccine 24:5937-49, 2006.

102. Cervarix Package Insert. Rixensart, Belgium: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; 2009.

103. Le Tallec D, Doucet D, Elouahabi A, Harvengt P, Deschuyteneer M, Deschamps M. Cervarix, the GSK HPV-16/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine, demonstrates stability upon long-term storage and under simulated cold chain break conditions. Hum Vaccin 5(7):467-74, 2009.

104. Pagliusi Sr, Aguado MT. Efficacy and other milestones for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine 23:569-578, 2004.

105. **De Carvalho N, Teixeira J, Roteli-Martins CM, Naud P, De Borba P, Zahaf T, Sanchez N, Schuind A. Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine up to 7.3 years in young adult women. Vaccine 28(38):6247-6255, 2010.
**This reference documents the longest term published efficacy for Cervarix.

106. The GlaxoSmithKline Vaccine HPV-023 Study Group. Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 8.4 years. Abstract #632 Presented at ESPID, May 4-8, 2010.

107. Romanowski B for PATRICIA Study Group. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: end-of-study results. Presented at 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 3-8, 2010.

108. Poppe W, Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmerón J, Chow SN, Apter D, et al. Vaccine efficacy with/without evidence of prior HPV-16/18 infection: analysis of PATRICIA, a phase III trial with AS04-adjuvanted HVP 16/18 vaccine. Presented at ESGO poster #115 Belgrade, Serbia October 11-14, 2009.

109. Schiffman M, Safaeian M, Wentzensen N. The use of human papillomavirus seroepidemiology to inform vaccine policy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 36:675-679, 2009.

110. Smith EM, Parker MA, Rubenstein LM, Haugen TH, Hamsikova E, Turek LP. Evidence for vertical transmission of HPV from mothers to infants. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. Article ID 326369, 7 pages. doi:10.1155/2010/326369 (2010).

111. Arbyn M, Simoens C, Van Damme P, Scharpantgen A, Meijer CJ, Beutels P. Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Gynecol Obstet Invest 70(4):224-232, 2010.

112. *Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 364:1757-65, 2004.
*First report of Cervarix' efficacy.

113. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, Moscicki AB, Romanowski B, Roteli-Martins CM, et al. Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial. Lancet 367(9518):1247-55, 2006.

114. **Schwarz TF, Spaczynski M, Schneider A, Wysocki J, Galaj A, Perona P, Poncelet S, Zahaf T, Hardt K, Descamps D, Dubin G on behalf of the HPV Study Group for Adult Women. Immunogenicity and tolerability of an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted prophylactic cervical cancer vaccine in women aged 15-55 years. Vaccine 27:581-587, 2009.
**Outstanding reference for long term immunogenicity of Cervarix in older women through 55 years.

115. Pedersen C, Petaja T, Strauss G, et al. Immunization of early adolescent females with human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine containing AS04 adjuvant. Journal of Adolescent Health 40:564-71, 2007.

116. Schwarz TF, Huang LM, Rivera Medina DM, Valencia A, Yien LT, Behre U, Catteau G, Thomas F, Descamps D. 4-Year follow up of immunogenicity and safety of adolescent girls vaccinated with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. 28th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID): Nice, France, May 4-8, 2010.

117. Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Rodriguez AC, Solomon D, Bratti MC, et al. Effect of human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 viruslike particle vaccine among young women with preexisting infection: a randomized trial. JAMA 298(7):743-53, 2007.

118. **Pacher SK, Rosenthal HE, Perlitz H, Feger T, Kastner U, Schneider A, et al. Direct Longitudinal comparison over 12 month of T cell responses to prophylactic HPV vaccines. Presented at 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 3-8, 2010.
** Critical report of the immunologic response of Cervarix to be superior to Gardasil and to offer HPV 6 and 11 immune responses.

119. Einstein MH, on behalf of the HPV-010 Study Group. Immunogenicity comparison of two prophylactic human papillomavirus cervical cancer vaccines at month 18. Presentation number PS 3-4. EuroGin, Feb 17-20, 2010, Monte Carlo, Monaco.

120. Roteli-Martins CM, Naud P, De Borba P, Teixeira J, De Carvalho N, et al. Sustained immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Abstract Number 632 ESPID, May 4-8, 2010.

121. ** Dessy F, Poncelet S, Xhenseval V, Méric D, Dubin G on behalf of the HPV-010 Study Group. Comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity of two prophylactic HPV cervical cancer vaccines by Merck's competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) and GSK's binding ELISA. Presentation # P IM-5. EuroGin, Monte Carlo, Monaco, Feb 17-20, 2009.
**Critical reference to put to rest discussions about immunologic titers compared in different assay systems.

122. Schiller JT, Davies P. Delivering on the promise: HPV vaccines and cervical cancer. Nat Rev Microbiol 2(4):343-7, 2004.

123. Nardelli-Haefliger D, Wirthner D, Schiller JT, Lowy DR, Hildesheim A, Ponci F, et al. Specific antibody levels at the cervix during the menstrual cycle of women vaccinated with human papillomavirus 16 virus-like particles. J Natl Cancer Inst 95(15):1128-37, 2003.

124. Paavonen J, Jenkins D, Bosch FX, et al: Efficacy of a prophylactic adjuvanted bivalent L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: an interim analysis of a phase III double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 369:2161-2170, 2007.

125. *Harper DM. Primary Prevention of HPV-Associated Diseases. Public Health Genomics 12:319-330, 2009.
*This reference brings to light the same immunologic responses for seropositive as seronegative women after HPV vaccination, an important concept that allows effective vaccination to those already HPV exposed.

126. Schwarz TF, Spaczynski M, Schneider A, Wysocki J, Galaj A, Schulze K, Poncelet S, Catteau G, Thomas F, Descamps D. Long-term persistence of immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine in women aged 15-55 years. Abstract O-6.3 Presented at AOGIN, New Delhi, India, March 26-28, 2010.

127. Romanowski B, Schwarz T, Ferguson L, Peters K, Dionne M, Schulze K, Ramjattan B, Hillemans P, Ebert R, Catteau G, Descamps D, Schuind A. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered as a 2 dose schedule compared with the standard 3 dose schedule. Abstract SS 11-5. EuroGin 2010, Monte Carlo, Monaco.

128. Petaja T, Keränen H, Karppa T, Kawa A, Lantela S, Siitari-Mattila M, Levänen H, Tocklin T, Godeaux O, Lehtinen M, Dubin G. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy boys aged 10-18 years. J Adolesc Health 44(1):33-40, 2009.

129. Garcia-Sicilia J, Schwarz TF, Carmona A, Peters K, Malkin JE, Tran PM, Behre U, Iturbe EB, Catteau G, Thomas F, Dobbelaere K, Descamps D, Dubin G; HPV Vaccine Adolescent Study Investigators Network. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine co-administered with combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine to girls and young women. J Adolesc Health 46(2):142-51, 2010.

130. Keam S and Harper DM. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine (recombinant, AS04 adjuvanted, adsorbed) [Cervarix]: profile report. BioDrugs 22(3):205-8, 2008.

131. Szarewski A, Lazcano E, Angsuwathana S, et al. Safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04 cervical cancer vaccine candidate in women aged 26 years or older. The HPV VIVIANE study group [abstract no. SS2-4]. EuroGin. Monte Carlo, Monaco Oct 4-6, 2007.

132. Descamps D, Hardt K, Spiessens B, Izurieta P, Verstraeten T, Breuer T, Dubin G. Safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine for cervical cancer prevention: A pooled analysis of 11 clinical trials. Hum Vaccine 5:332-40, 2009.

133. Wacholder S, Chen BE, Wilcox A, Macones G, Gonzalez P, Befano B, Hildesheim A, Rodríguez AC, Solomon D, Herrero R, Schiffman M; CVT group. Risk of miscarriage with bivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18: pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials. Br Med J 340, c712 (2010).

134. Gardasil [Package Insert]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc. 2009.

135. Schaffer V, Wimmer S, Rotaru I, Topakian R, Haring HP, Aichner FT. HPV Vaccine: a cornerstone of female health- a possible cause of ADEM? J Neurol 255:1818-1820, 2008.

136. Colgrove J, Abiola S, Mello MM. HPV vaccination mandates--lawmaking amid political and scientific controversy. N Engl J Med 363(8):785-91, 2010.
*An important study from the policy angle on HPV vaccination.

137. Harper DM, Paavonen J. Age for HPV vaccination. Vaccine 26 Suppl 1:A7-11, 2008.

138. Castellsagué X, Schneider A, Kaufmann AM, Bosch FX. HPV vaccination against cervical cancer in women above 25 years of age: key considerations and current perspectives. Gynecol Oncol 115(3 Suppl):S15-23, 2009.

139. Lehtinen M, Apter D, Dubin G, Kosunen E, Isaksson R, Korpivaara EL, et al. Enrolment of 22,000 adolescent women to cancer registry follow-up for long-term human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy: guarding against guessing. Int J STD & AIDS 17:517-521, 2006.

140. Finnish Cancer Registry, http://www.cancerregistry.fi/stats/eng/veng0006i0.html. [accessed November 25, 2010]

141. http://www.who.int/hpvcentre/en/ [accessed November 25, 2010]

142. http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/populations/factsheet.asp?uno=900 [accessed November 25, 2010]

143. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5932a3.htm?s_cid=mm5932a3_w [accessed November 25, 2010]

144. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/stats-surv/nhis/downloads/2009-nhis-tables.xls [accessed November 25, 2010]

145. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/559807 [accessed November 25, 2010]

146. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=Cervarix&pg=2 [accessed November 25, 2010]

147. http://pregnancyregistry.gsk.com/documents/cervarix_pregnancy_registry_registration_form.pdf [accessed November 25, 2010]

148. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/aide-memoire/a87773_eng.pdf [accessed November 25, 2010].

149. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/downloads/mtg-slides-oct10/08-2-hpv-VaccSafety.pdf [accessed November 25, 2010]

150. http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_cervarix.pdf [accessed November 25, 2010]

151. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5920a4.htm (accessed November 25, 2010)]

152. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/cancersbyraceandethnicity.aspx [accessed November 25, 2010]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Está expresamente prohibida la redistribución y la redifusión de todo o parte de los contenidos de la Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica (SIIC) S.A. sin previo y expreso consentimiento de SIIC.
Artículos relacionadosMás relacionadosAtículos relacionados
ua31618
-->