TERAPIA DE REEMPLAZO HORMONAL Y ENFERMEDAD NEURODEGENERATIVA

TERAPIA DE REEMPLAZO HORMONAL Y ENFERMEDAD NEURODEGENERATIVA

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
Hay todavía mucho por entender sobre el papel de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) en la prevención y el tratamiento de la neurodegeneración. Sin embargo, algunos de los hallazgos más recientes ofrecen fundamentos científicos y epidemiológicos convincentes que permiten tener en cuenta la TRH tanto para el tratamiento sintomático como neuroprotector de las enfermedades de Alzheimer y de Parkinson y la demencia asociada con VIH.
Autor:
Andrew J. Levine
Columnista Experto de SIIC

Institución:
University of California


Artículos publicados por Andrew J. Levine
Coautores
Karen J. Miller* Elyse J. Singer** James Sutton*** 
PhD, University of California, Los Angeles, EE.UU.*
MD, University of California, Los Angeles, EE.UU.**
MD, Pacific Neuroscience Medical Group, Oxnard, EE.UU.***
Recepción del artículo
18 de Julio, 2007
Aprobación
31 de Agosto, 2007
Primera edición
6 de Mayo, 2008
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
En los últimos años se han dado controversias importantes acerca de los efectos de la estrogenoterapia sustitutiva y, en términos más generales, la terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) y otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Esta revisión presenta algunos de los hallazgos y aportes más recientes en estudios de ciencias básicas, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados e investigación epidemiológica relacionada con los efectos neuroprotectores potenciales de la TRH en EA, demencia asociada con VIH y enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). Ha ido ganado más adeptos la convicción acerca de la capacidad de la TRH de reducir el riesgo de EA y mejorar el funcionamiento cognitivo de las mujeres posmenopáusicas, sobre todo cuando se consideran también las limitaciones del Women's Health Initiative Memory Study de 2002. También se está prestando mayor atención a los efectos sintomáticos y neuroprotectores de la TRH en el tratamiento de la EP, así como al papel de la TRH como estrategia novedosa en la prevención y el tratamiento de la demencia asociada con VIH. Existen limitaciones importantes en la investigación actual, pero también razones convincentes para volver a examinar el modo en que algunas formas de TRH pueden ayudar a preservar las capacidades cognitivas en mujeres posmenopáusicas y evitar las enfermedades neurodegenerativas.

Palabras clave
terapia de reemplazo hormonal, estrógenos, 17beta-estradiol, demencia asociada con VIH, enfermedad de Parkinson, enfermedad de Alzheimer, demencia frontotemporal


Artículo completo

(castellano)
Extensión:  +/-20.3 páginas impresas en papel A4
Exclusivo para suscriptores/assinantes

Abstract
In the past several years, there has been a significant amount of controversy about the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and, more generally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on Alzheimer's (AD) and other neurodegenerative conditions. This review presents some of the more recent findings and developments in basic science studies, randomized clinical trials, and epidemiological research regarding the potential neuroprotective effects of HRT in AD, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased support is continuing to emerge for HRT's ability to reduce the risk of AD and improve the cognitive functioning of postmenopausal women, particularly when considered alongside the limitations of the 2002 Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Greater attention is also being given to the symptomatic and neuroprotective effects of HRT in the management of PD, as well as the role of HRT as a novel strategy in the prevention and treatment of HAD. There are important limits to the existing research, but there are also persuasive reasons for reexamining how some forms of HRT may help preserve cognitive abilities in post-menopausal women and stave off neurodegenerative diseases.

Key words
hormone replacement therapy, estrogen, 17ß-estradiol, HIV-associated dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia


Full text
(english)
para suscriptores/ assinantes

Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos del Mundo >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Farmacología, Neurología
Relacionadas: Bioquímica, Diagnóstico por Laboratorio, Obstetricia y Ginecología



Comprar este artículo
Extensión: 20.3 páginas impresas en papel A4

file05.gif (1491 bytes) Artículos seleccionados para su compra



Enviar correspondencia a:
Andrew J. Levine, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine National Neurological AIDS Bank Department of Neurology, CA 90025, 11645 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 770, Los Angeles, EE.UU.
Patrocinio y reconocimiento:
Agradecimiento: Los Dres. Singer y Levine recibieron una beca de NINDS (NS-38841). El Dr. Levine también recibió la beca ID06-LA-187 del California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). El Dr. Miller agradece al Dr. Steve Rogers su ayuda en la investigación y la redacción de este artículo.
Bibliografía del artículo
1. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 288:321-333, 2002.
2. Cummings JL. Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 351:56-67, 2004.
3. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA 291:1701-1712, 2004.
4. Rapp SR, Espeland MA, Schumaker SA. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on global cognitive function in postmenopausal women. JAMA 289(20):2663-2672, 2003.
5. Resnick SM, Coker LH, Maki PM, Rapp SR, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA. The Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA): a randomized clinical trail of the effects of hormone therapy on age-associated cognitive decline. Clinical Trials 1:440-450, 2004.
6. Schumaker SA, Legault C, Kuller L et al. Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. JAMA 291(24):2947-2958, 2004.
7. Craig MC, Maki PM, Murphy DGM. The Women's Health Initiative Study: findings and implications for treatment. Lancet Neurology 4:190-194, 2005.
8. Machens K, Schmidt-Gollwitzer K. Issues to debate on the Women's Health Initiative WHI study. Hormone replacement therapy: An epidemiological dilemma? Human Reproduction 1810:1992-1999, 2003.
9. Sherwin BB. Estrogen and memory in women: how can we reconcile the findings? Hormones and Behavior 47:371-375, 2005.
10. Rannevik G, Jeppson S, Johnell O, et al. A longitudinal study of the perimenopausal transition: altered profiles of steroid and pituitary hormones, SHBG, and bone mineral density. Maturitas 21:103-113, 1995.
11. Nilsen J, Shuhua C, Irwin RW, Iwamoto S, Brinton RD. Estrogen protects neuronal cells from amyloid beta-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial proteins and function. BMC Neuroscience 7:24 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-7-24, 2006.
12. Nilsen J, Brinton RD. Impact of progestins on estradiol potentiation of the glutamate calcium response. Neuroreport 13(6):825-830, 2002.
13. Nilsen J, Brinton RD. Divergent impact of progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on nuclear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(18):10506-10511, 2003.
14. Anderer P, Saletu B, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, et al. Brain regions activated during an auditory discrimination task in insomniac postmenopausal patients before and after hormone replacement therapy: low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography applied to event-related potentials. Neuropsychobiology 49 :134-153, 2004.
15. Kugaya A, Epperson CN, Zoghbi S, et al. Increase in prefrontal cortex serotonin 2A receptors following estrogen treatment in postmenopausal women. Am J Psychiatry 160:1522-1524, 2003.
16. Schiff R, Bulpitt CJ, Wesnes KA, Rajkumar C. Short-term transdermal estradiol therapy, cognition and depressive symptoms in healthy older women. A randomized placebo controlled pilot cross-over study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:309-315, 2005.
17. Saletu B. Sleep, vigilance and cognition in postmenopausal women: placebo-controlled studies with 2mg estradiol valerate, with and without 3mg dienogest. Climacteric 6(Suppl 2):37-45, 2003.
18. Yaffe K, Barnes D, Lindquist K, Cauley EM, Simonsick EM, et al. Endogenous sex hormone levels and risk of cognitive decline in an older biracial cohort. Neurobiology of Aging 28:171-178, 2007.
19. Rasgon NL, Small GW, Siddarth P, et al. Estrogen use and brain metabolic change in postmenopausal women. Psychiatric Res 107:11-18, 2001.
20. Rasgon NL, Silverman D, Siddarth P, Miller K, Ercoli LM, et al. Estrogen use and brain metabolic change in postmenopausal women. Neurobiology of Aging 26(2):229-235, 2005.
21. Xu H, Wang R, Zhang YW, Zhang X. Estrogen, ß-amyloid metabolism/trafficking, and Alzheimer's disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 1089:324-342, 2006.
22. Nilsen J, Shuhua C, Irwin RW, Iwamoto S, Brinton RD. Estrogen protects neuronal cells from amyloid beta-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial proteins and function. BMC Neuroscience 7:24 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-7-24, 2006.
23. Chen S, Nilsen J, Brinton RD. Dose and temporal pattern of estrogen exposure determines neuroprotective outcome in hippocampal neurons: therapeutic implications. Endocrinology 147(11):5303-5313, 2006.
24. Almeida OP, Lautenschlager NT, Vasikaran S, Leedman P, Gelavis A, Flicker L. A 20-week randomized controlled trial of estradiol replacement therapy for women aged 70 years and older: effect on mood, cognition, and quality of life. Neurobiology of Aging 27:141-149, 2006.
25. Alvarez de la Rosa M, Silva I, Nilsen J, Perez MM, García Segura LM, et al. Estradiol prevents neural tau hyperphosphorylation characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 1052:210-224, 2005.
26. Cardona Gómez GP, Arango Dávila C, Gallego Gómez JC, Barrera Ocampo A, Pimienta H, García Segura LM. Estrogen dissociates Tau and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyllisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor subunit in postischemic hippocampus. NeuroReport 17(12):1337-1341, 2006.
27. Lew GM. Changes in microtubule tau protein after estrogen in a cultured human neuroblastoma cell line. Gen Pharmac 25(6):1383-1386, 1993.
28. Ferreira A, Cáceres A. Estrogen-enhanced neurite growth: Evidence for a selective induction of tau and stable microtubules. The Journal of Neuroscience 11(2):392-400, 1991.
29. Levine A, Hewett L. Estrogen replacement therapy and Frontotemporal Dementia. Maturitas 45:83-88, 2003.
30. Corder EH, Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel DE, Gaskell Jr PC, et al. The apolipoprotein E E4 allele and sex-specific risk of Alzheimer's disease. JAMA 273(5):373-374, 1995.
31. Wang JM, Irwin RW, Brinton RD. Activation of estrogen receptor a increases and estrogen receptor ß decreases apolipoprotein E expression in hippocampus in vitro and in vivo. PNAS 103(45):16983-16988, 2006.
32. Nathan BP, Barsukova AG, Shen F, McAsey M, Struble RG. Estrogen facilitates neurite extension via apolipoprotein E in cultured adult mouse cortical neurons. Endocrinology 145(7):3065-73, 2004.
33. Bretsky PM, Buckwalter JG, Seeman TE, Miller CA, Poirier J, et al. Evidence for an interaction between apolipoprotein E genotype, gender, and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 13(4):216-21, 1999.
34. Payami H, Zareparsi S, Montee KR, Sexton GJ, Kaye JA, et al. Gender difference in apolipoprotein E-associated risk for familial Alzheimer's disease: a possible clue to the higher incidence of Alzheimer disease in women. Am J Hum Genet 58(4):803-11, 1996.
35. Yaffe K, Haan M, Byers A, Tangen C, Kuller L. Estrogen use, APOE, and cognitive decline: evidence of gene-environment interaction. Neurology 54(10):1949-54, 2000.
36. Yaffe K, Cauley J, Sands L, Browner W. Apolipoprotein E phenotype and cognitive decline in a prospective study of elderly community women. Arch Neurol 54(9):1110-4, 1997.
37. Gleason CE, Carlsson CM, Johnson S, Atwood C, Asthana S. Clinical pharmacology and differential cognitive efficacy of estrogen preparations. Ann NY Acad Sci 1052:93-115, 2005.
38. Zhao L, Brinton RD. Select estrogens within the complex formulation of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin®) are protective against neurodegenerative insults: implications for a composition of estrogen therapy to promote neuronal function and prevent Alzheimer's disease. BMC Neuroscience 7:24 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-7-24, 2006.
39. Dykens JA, Moos WH, Howell N. Development of 17a-estradiol as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent: rationale and results from phase I clinical study. Ann NY Acad Sci 1052, 116-135, 2005.
40. Bokazhanova A, Rutherford GW. The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the world. Coll Antropol 30(Suppl 2):3-10, 2006.
41. Price RW, Brew B, et al. The brain in AIDS: central nervous system HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex. Science 239(4840):586-92, 1988.
42. McArthur JC, Hoover DR, et al. Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Neurology 43(11):2245-52, 1993.
43. Wojna V, Skolasky RL, et al. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment in a group of Hispanic women at risk for neurological impairment. J Neurovirol 12(5) :356-64, 2006.
44. Wynn HE, Brundage RC, et al. Clinical implications of CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs. CNS Drugs 16(9) :595-609, 2002.
45. Anthony IC, Ramage SN, et al. Influence of HAART on HIV-related CNS disease and neuroinflammation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64(6):529-36, 2005.
46. Bouwman FH, Skolasky RL, et al. Variable progression of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 50(6):1814-20, 1988.
47. Brabers NA, Nottet HS. Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in HIV-associated dementia. Eur J Clin Invest 36(7):447-58, 2006.
48. Wang T, Rumbaugh JA, et al. Viruses and the brain: from inflammation to dementia. Clin Sci (Lond) 110(4):393-407, 2006.
49. Pert CB, Smith CC, et al. AIDS and its dementia as a neuropeptide disorder: role of VIP receptor blockade by human immunodeficiency virus envelope. Ann Neurol 23I:S71-3, 1988.
50. Navia BA, Dafni U, et al. A phase I/II trial of nimodipine for HIV-related neurologic complications. Neurology 51(1):221-8, 1998.
51. Anderson ER, Gendelman HE, et al. Memantine protects hippocampal neuronal function in murine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalitis. J Neurosci 24(32):7194-8, 2004.
52. Jain KK. Evaluation of memantine for neuroprotection in dementia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 9(6):1397-406, 2000.
53. Sawada H, Ibi M, et al. Estradiol protects dopaminergic neurons in a MPP+Parkinson's disease model. Neuropharmacology 42(8):1056-64, 2002.
54. Zhu WH, Lu CZ, et al. A putative mechanism on remission of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy: estrogen-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by dendritic cells. Mult Scler 13(1):33-40, 2007.
55. Nakamizo T, Urushitani M, et al. Protection of cultured spinal motor neurons by estradiol. Neuroreport, 11(16):3493-7, 2000.
56. Janssen RS, Nwanyanwu OC, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy in the United States. Neurology 42(8):1472-6, 1992.
57. Wunder DM, Bersinger NA, et al. Hypogonadism in HIV-1-infected men is common and does not resolve during antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther 12(2):261-5, 2007.
58. Clark RA, Mulligan K, et al. Frequency of anovulation and early menopause among women enrolled in selected adult AIDS clinical trials group studies. J Infect Dis 184(10) :1325-7, 2001.
59. Anastos K, Gange SJ, et al. Association of race and gender with HIV-1 RNA levels and immunologic progression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 24(3) :218-26, 2000.
60. Biber CL, Jaker MA, et al. A study of sex differences in presentation for care of HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS 13(2):103-10, 1999.
61. Coutinho RA. Some aspects of the natural history of HIV infection. Trop Med Int Health 5(7):A22-5, 2000.
62. Napravnik S, Poole C, et al. Gender difference in HIV RNA levels: a meta-analysis of published studies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31(1):11-9, 2002.
63. Nicastri E, Angeletti C, et al. Gender differences in clinical progression of HIV-1-infected individuals during long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 19(6):577-83, 2005.
64. Cornelisse PG, Montessori V, et al. The impact of zidovudine on dementia-free survival in a population of HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy. Int J STD AIDS 11(1):52-6, 2000.
65. Moore AL, Kirk O, et al. Virologic, immunologic, and clinical response to highly active antiretroviral therapy: the gender issue revisited. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32(4) :452-61, 2003.
66. Liu X, Marder K, et al. Gender differences in HIV-related neurological progression in a cohort of injecting drug users followed for 3.5 years. J NeuroAIDS 1(4):17-30, 1996.
67. Chiesi A, Vella S, et al. Epidemiology of AIDS dementia complex in Europe. AIDS in Europe Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 11(1):39-44, 1996.
68. Robertson KR, Kapoor C, et al. No gender differences in the progression of nervous system disease in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 36(3):817-22, 2004.
69. Clark RA, Bessinger R. Clinical manifestations and predictors of survival in older women infected with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 15(5) :341-5, 1997.
70. Brenneman DE, McCune SK, et al. gp120 as an etiologic agent for NeuroAIDS: neurotoxicity and model systems. Adv Neuroimmunol 4(3):157-65, 1994.
71. Brooke S, Chan R, et al. Endocrine modulation of the neurotoxicity of gp120: implications for AIDS-related dementia complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(17):9457-62, 1997.
72. Howard SA, Brooke SM, et al. Mechanisms of estrogenic protection against gp120-induced neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol 168(2):385-91, 2001.
73. Corasaniti MT, Amantea D, et al. 17beta-estradiol reduces neuronal apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120 in the neocortex of rat. Neurotoxicology 26(5):893-903, 2005.
74. Wilson ME, Allred KF, et al. Estradiol negatively regulates HIV-LTR promoter activity in glial cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22(4):350-6, 2006.
75. Kendall SL, Anderson CF, et al. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate neurotoxicity of HIV and cocaine: testosterone and ICI 182,780 sensitive mechanism. BMC Neurosci 6(1):40, 2005.
76. Turchan J, Anderson C, et al. Estrogen protects against the synergistic toxicity by HIV proteins, methamphetamine and cocaine. BMC Neurosci 2:3, 2001.
77. Wallace DR, Dodson S, et al. Estrogen attenuates gp120- and tat1-72-induced oxidative stress and prevents loss of dopamine transporter function. Synapse 59(1):51-60, 2006.
78. Wilson ME, Dimayuga FO, et al. Immune modulation by estrogens: role in CNS HIV-1 infection. Endocrine 29(2):289-97, 2006.
79. Katagiri D, Hayashi H, et al. Estrogen stimulates transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Int Immunopharmacol 6(2):170-81, 2006.
80. Pozzi S, Benedusi V, et al. Estrogen action in neuroprotection and brain inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1089:302-23, 2006.
81. Maggi A, Ciana P, et al. Estrogens in the nervous system: mechanisms and nonreproductive functions. Annu Rev Physiol 66:291-313, 2004.
82. Tanner CM, Goldman SM. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. Neurol Clin 14:317-335, 1996.
83. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Bratzke H, Hamm-Clement J, Sandmann-Keil D, Rüb U. Staging of the intracerebral inclusion body pathology associated with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (preclinical and clinical stages). J Neurol 249(Suppl 3:III):1-5, 2002.
84. Quinn NP, Marsden CD. Menstrual-related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1(1):85-7, 1986.
85. Sandyk R. Estrogens and the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Int J Neurosci 45(1-2) :119-22, 1989.
86. Kompoliti K, Comella CL, Jaglin JA, Leurgans S, Raman R, et al. Menstrual-related changes in motoric function in women with Parkinson's disease. Neurology 55(10):1572-5, 2000.
87. Martignoni E, Nappi RE, Citterio A, Calandrella D, Zangaglia R, et al. Reproductive life milestones in women with Parkinson's disease. Funct Neurol 18(4):211-7, 2003.
88. Craig MC, Cutter WJ, Wickham H, Van Amelsvoort TA, Rymer J, et al. Effect of long-term estrogen therapy on dopaminergic responsivity in post-menopausal women--a preliminary study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29(10):1309-16, 2004.
89. Strijks E, Kremer JA, Horstink MW. Effects of female sex steroids on Parkinson's disease in postmenopausal women. Clin Neuropharmacol 22(2):93-7, 1999.
90. Tsang KL, Ho SL, Lo SK. Estrogen improves motor disability in parkinsonian postmenopausal women with motor fluctuations. Neurology 54(12):2292-8, 2000.
91. Blanchet PJ, Fang J, Hyland K, Arnold LA, Mouradian MM, Chase TN. Short-term effects of high-dose 17beta-estradiol in postmenopausal PD patients: a crossover study. Neurology 53(1):91-5, 1999.
92. Bains M, Cousins JC, Roberts JL. Neuroprotection by estrogen against MPP+-induced dopamine neuron death is mediated by ERalpha in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalon. Exp Neurol 204(2):767-76, 2007.
93. Quesada A, Romeo HE, Micevych P. Distribution and localization patterns of estrogen receptor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in neurons and glial cells of the female rat substantia nigra: localization of ERbeta and IGF-1R in substantia nigra. J Comp Neurol 503(1):198-208, 2007.
94. Stroppolo A, Tian C, Guinea B, Olm V, Sheffield R, et al. 17beta-Estradiol promotes striatal medium size spiny neuronal maturation in vitro. Neuroendocrinology 79(5):259-67, 2004.
95. Rønnekleiv OK, Malyala A, Kelly MJ. Membrane-initiated signaling of estrogen in the brain. Semin Reprod Med 25(3):165-77, 2007.
96. Gardiner SA, Morrison MF, Mozley PD, Mozley LH, Brensinger C, et al. Pilot study on the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on brain dopamine transporter availability in healthy, postmenopausal women. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 12(6):621-30, 2004.
97. McArthur S, Murray HE, Dhankot A, Dexter DT, Gillies GE. Striatal susceptibility to a dopaminergic neurotoxin is independent of sex hormone effects on cell survival and DAT expression but is exacerbated by central aromatase inhibition. J Neurochem 100(3):678-92, 2007.
98. Wooten GF, Currie LJ, Bovbjerg VE, Lee JK, Patrie J. Are men at greater risk for Parkinson's disease than women? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75(4):637-9, 2004.
99. Haaxma CA, Bloem BR, Borm GF, Oyen WJ, Leenders KL, et al. Gender Differences in Parkinson's Disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print], 2006.
100. Ragonese P, D'Amelio M, Salemi G, Aridon P, Gammino M, et al. Risk of Parkinson disease in women: effect of reproductive characteristics. Neurology 62(11):2010-4, 2004.
101. Popat RA, Van Den Eeden SK, Tanner CM, McGuire V, Bernstein AL, et al. Effect of reproductive factors and postmenopausal hormone use on the risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology 65(3):383-90, 2005.
102. Currie LJ, Harrison MB, Trugman JM, Bennett JP, Wooten GF. Postmenopausal estrogen use affects risk for Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 61(6):886-8, 2004.
103. Bové J, Serrats J, Mengod G, Cortés R, Tolosa E, Marin C. Neuroprotection induced by the adenosine A2A antagonist CSC in the 6-OHDA rat model of parkinsonism: effect on the activity of striatal output pathways. Exp Brain Res 165(3):362-74, 2005.
104. Kenchappa RS, Diwakar L, Annepu J, Ravindranath V. Estrogen and neuroprotection: higher constitutive expression of glutaredoxin in female mice offers protection against MPTP-mediated neurodegeneration. FASEB J 18(10):1102-4, 2004.
105. Disshon KA, Dluzen DE. Estrogen as a neuromodulator of MPTP-induced neurotoxicity: effects upon striatal dopamine release. Brain Res 764(1-2):9-16, 1997.
106. Sawada H, Ibi M, Kihara T, Honda K, Nakamizo T, et al. Estradiol protects dopaminergic neurons in a MPP+Parkinson's disease model. Neuropharmacology 42(8):1056-64, 2002.
107. Obata T. Environmental estrogen-like chemicals and hydroxyl radicals induced by MPTP in the striatum: a review. Neurochem Res 27(5):423-31, 2002.
108. Miller DB, Ali SF, O'Callaghan JP, Laws SC. The impact of gender and estrogen on striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 844:153-65, 1998.
109. Grandbois M, Morissette M, Callier S, Di Paolo T. Ovarian steroids and raloxifene prevent MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in mice. Neuroreport 11(2):343-6, 2000.
110. Marchetti B, Serra PA, L'Episcopo F, Tirolo C, Caniglia S, et al. Hormones are key actors in gene x environment interactions programming the vulnerability to Parkinson's disease: glia as a common final pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1057:296-318, 2005.
111. Morale MC, Serra PA, L'episcopo F, Tirolo C, Caniglia S, et al. Estrogen, neuroinflammation and neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease: glia dictates resistance versus vulnerability to neurodegeneration. Neuroscience 138(3):869-78, 2006.
112. Shughrue PJ. Estrogen attenuates the MPTP-induced loss of dopamine neurons from the mouse SNc despite a lack of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta). Exp Neurol 190(2):468-77, 2004.
113. Dluzen D. Estrogen decreases corpus striatal neurotoxicity in response to 6-hydroxydopamine. Brain Res 767(2):340-4, 1997.
114. Quesada A, Micevych PE. Estrogen interacts with the IGF-1 system to protect nigrostriatal dopamine and maintain motoric behavior after 6-hydroxdopamine lesions. J Neurosci Res 75(1):107-16, 2004.
115. Murray HE, Pillai AV, McArthur SR, Razvi N, Datla KP, et al. Dose- and sex-dependent effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of adult rats: differential actions of estrogen in males and females. Neuroscience 116(1):213-22, 2003.
116. Gao X, Dluzen DE. Tamoxifen abolishes estrogen's neuroprotective effect upon methamphetamine neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Neuroscience 103(2):385-94, 2001.
117. Gajjar TM, Anderson LI, Dluzen DE. Acute effects of estrogen upon methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. J Neural Transm 110(11):1215-24, 2003.
118. Ohtani H, Nomoto M, Douchi T. Chronic estrogen treatment replaces striatal dopaminergic function in ovariectomized rats. Brain Res 900(2):163-8, 2001.
119. Wagner GC, Tekirian TL, Cheo CT. Sexual differences in sensitivity to methamphetamine toxicity. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 93(1):67-70, 1993.
120. Yu YL, Wagner GC. Influence of gonadal hormones on sexual differences in sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 8(3):215-21, 1994.
121. Sawada H, Ibi M, Kihara T, Urushitani M, Akaike A, Shimohama S. Estradiol protects mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. J Neurosci Res 54(5):707-19, 1998.
122. Sawada H, Shimohama S. Neuroprotective effects of estradiol in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24(1):143-7, 2000.
123. Biewenga E, Cabell L, Audesirk T. Estradiol and raloxifene protect cultured SN4741 neurons against oxidative stress. Neurosci Lett 373(3):179-83, 2005.
124. Wallace DR, Dodson S, Nath A, Booze RM. Estrogen attenuates gp120- and tat1-72-induced oxidative stress and prevents loss of dopamine transporter function. Synapse 59(1):51-60, 2006.
125. Ramirez AD, Liu X, Menniti FS. Repeated estradiol treatment prevents MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in male mice. Neuroendocrinology 77(4):223-31, 2003.
126. D'Astous M, Méndez P, Morissette M, García Segura LM, Di Paolo T. Implication of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway in the neuroprotective effect of estradiol in the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mice. Mol Pharmacol 69(4):1492-8, 2006.
127. Liu X, Fan XL, Zhao Y, Luo GR, Li XP, et al. Estrogen provides neuroprotection against activated microglia-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury through both estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta in microglia. J Neurosci Res 81(5):653-65, 2005.
128. Dykens JA, Moos WH, Howell N. Development of 17alpha-estradiol as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent: rationale and results from a phase I clinical study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1052:116-35, 2005.
129. McNaught KS, Olanow CW. Protein aggregation in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging 27(4):530-45, 2006.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Está expresamente prohibida la redistribución y la redifusión de todo o parte de los contenidos de la Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica (SIIC) S.A. sin previo y expreso consentimiento de SIIC.
ua31618