ESTRATEGIAS DE VACUNACION EN NIÑOS VIH POSITIVOS
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ESTRATEGIAS DE VACUNACION EN NIÑOS VIH POSITIVOS

(especial para SIIC © Derechos reservados)
La inmunización de los niños VIH positivos es un campo de rápida evolución dada la mayor disponibilidad actual de la terapia antirretroviral. Para los países con recursos limitados se postula la creación de normativas de revacunación de rutina sin una pesquisa previa de anticuerpos.
naidoo9_11411.jpg Autor:
Reené Naidoo
Columnista Experta de SIIC

Institución:
University of Cape Town


Artículos publicados por Reené Naidoo
Coautor
Brian Stephen Eley* 
MBChB, FCP(Paeds), University of Cape Town, Ciudad del Cabo, Sudáfrica*
Recepción del artículo
4 de Octubre, 2010
Aprobación
25 de Marzo, 2011
Primera edición
14 de Marzo, 2011
Segunda edición, ampliada y corregida
7 de Junio, 2021

Resumen
La inmunización de los niños VIH positivos es un campo de rápida evolución ya que la terapia antirretroviral (TAR) se encuentra más fácilmente disponible en los países en vías de desarrollo. Se ha descrito adecuadamente que los pacientes infectados por el VIH presentan respuestas inmunogénicas subóptimas frente a las vacunas pediátricas de rutina. Este artículo es una revisión de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 10 años acerca de la inmunización de los niños que reciben TAR, con énfasis específico en las reinmunizaciones. La revacunación es claramente necesaria, pero no se han establecido con claridad los métodos óptimos. Existen también dos grupos diferentes de niños a considerar: los que iniciaron la TAR durante la primera infancia, cuando se administran las primeras series de vacunas, y aquellos que inician la TAR después del primer año de vida. Las investigaciones recientes sugieren que el inicio temprano de la TAR durante la infancia preserva la función de los linfocitos B y la memoria de la respuesta a las vacunas, lo que resulta en protección prolongada. No se definió la necesidad de las dosis de refuerzo después de la inmunización primaria en estos niños. Aquellos que iniciaron la TAR después del primer año de vida requieren repetir las series de vacunas iniciales o múltiples dosis de refuerzo debido a deficiencias inmunitarias funcionales. La reinmunización dirigida sobre la base de la cuantificación de los títulos de anticuerpos, de los análisis de la proliferación de linfocitos, o ambos, no es posible en países con recursos limitados. En estos contextos, deberían proponerse normativas de reinmunización de rutina sin una pesquisa de laboratorio previa.

Palabras clave
vacunación, niños VIH positivos, terapia antirretroviral


Artículo completo

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Extensión:  +/-11.62 páginas impresas en papel A4
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Abstract
Immunization in HIV-infected children is a rapidly evolving field as antiretroviral therapy (ART) becomes more freely available in developing countries. It has been well described that HIV-infected individuals have suboptimal immunogenic responses to routine childhood vaccines. This article reviews the published literature over the past 10 years on immunization in children on ART focusing specifically on re-immunization. Revaccination is clearly necessary but optimal methods have not been clearly established. There are also two distinct groups of children to consider: infants started on ART during early infancy when their primary vaccine series is being administered and those who initiate ART beyond the age of 1 year. Recent research suggests that early ART initiation during infancy preserves B cell function and memory response to vaccines, resulting in prolonged protection. Whether booster vaccine doses are needed after primary immunization in these children remains unclear. Children, initiated on ART after the age of 1 year require repeat of the primary vaccine series or multiple booster doses due to functional immune deficits. Targeted re-immunization based on antibody titre quantification and, or lymphocyte proliferation assays is not possible in resource-limited countries. In these settings, routine re-immunization guidelines without prior laboratory screening should be developed.

Key words
immunization, HIV-infected children, antiretroviral therapy


Full text
(english)
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Clasificación en siicsalud
Artículos originales > Expertos del Mundo >
página   www.siicsalud.com/des/expertocompleto.php/

Especialidades
Principal: Infectología, Pediatría
Relacionadas: Atención Primaria, Bioquímica, Diagnóstico por Laboratorio, Farmacología, Inmunología, Medicina Familiar, Medicina Farmacéutica, Salud Pública



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Enviar correspondencia a:
Reené Naidoo, University of Cape Town Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Ciudad del Cabo, Sudáfrica
Bibliografía del artículo


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